The lithospheric architecture of Africa consists of several Archean cratons and smaller cratonic fragments, stitched together and flanked by younger fold belts. The three larger cratons (West Africa, Congo and Kalahari Cratons) are underlain by Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) extending to ≥300 km depth and having a prevailing depleted composition. Three series of spinel peridotite xenoliths from Waw-En-Namus (Libya; LB hereafter), Tafraoute and Bou-Ibalrhatene (Morocco; MOR), Barombi Mbo and Lake Nyos (Cameroon; CA) have been investigated to provide a new knowledge of the mantle beneath North-Western Africa continent. In particular MOR and LB should reflect peri- and meta-cratonic conditions, respectively while CA are from the Cameroon volcanic line whose products outcrop within a polycyclic mobile belt. According to their chemistry, the spinels from CAM and MOR xenoliths are magmatic cumulates while LB are representatives of ambient lithospheric peridotites. From a structural point of view, the CAM and MOR spinels are rather similar having comparable cell edges and oxygen positional parameters. The cation distribution allows the determination of an intracrystalline temperature in the range 560-750 °C. Spinels from LB can be divided in two groups with very different oxygen positional parameter and cell edges. The intracrystalline temperature is <640 °C for the first group and >680 °C for the second. There is a similarity of Vcell between the CAM, MOR and LBI cpx (< 434 Å3) while those from LBII show Vcell >435 Å3. According to their REE contents, CAM cpx can be divided in 2 groups (depleted and enriched in LREE compared to CPX-DMM), in MOR there are two, both enriched, but with different behavior of the LREE suggesting evolutions starting from a DMM like composition. LB cpx show 4 groups, all of them being more or less depleted. The OH contents are lowest for the LB cpx (100-300 ppm H2O), while the CAM samples are intermediate (200-400 ppm H2O) and the MOR samples show the highest contents (380-610 ppm H2O). Boron is nearly absent apart from two samples (one olivine and one cpx) from CAM. The xenoliths sampled from a probably juvenile lithosphere at the edge of the Cameroon and Morocco lithospheric roots apparently have cumulus-like spinels probably crystallized in situ from percolating melts and thus do not represent a real spinel-peridotites facies; on the contrary peridotite mantle xenoliths from Libya exhibit spinels with features compatible with a slow ascent of a mantle plume. The juvenile behaviors shown by CAM and MOR spinels seem also to be reflected by the cpx-HREE patterns showing typical DMM features. As opposed, for LB ones, where very depleted HREE patterns appear, recent chemical changes seem to have been superimposed to ancient (and/or deeper?) depletion. Funding was provided by the FRA 2013 project of the Trieste University.

Mantle xenoliths of Cameroon, Morocco and Libya: A structural and chemical (major oxides, trace elements, REE, OH and B) study of their mineral assemblage

LENAZ, DAVIDE;DE MIN, ANGELO;PRINCIVALLE, FRANCESCO;
2015

Abstract

The lithospheric architecture of Africa consists of several Archean cratons and smaller cratonic fragments, stitched together and flanked by younger fold belts. The three larger cratons (West Africa, Congo and Kalahari Cratons) are underlain by Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM) extending to ≥300 km depth and having a prevailing depleted composition. Three series of spinel peridotite xenoliths from Waw-En-Namus (Libya; LB hereafter), Tafraoute and Bou-Ibalrhatene (Morocco; MOR), Barombi Mbo and Lake Nyos (Cameroon; CA) have been investigated to provide a new knowledge of the mantle beneath North-Western Africa continent. In particular MOR and LB should reflect peri- and meta-cratonic conditions, respectively while CA are from the Cameroon volcanic line whose products outcrop within a polycyclic mobile belt. According to their chemistry, the spinels from CAM and MOR xenoliths are magmatic cumulates while LB are representatives of ambient lithospheric peridotites. From a structural point of view, the CAM and MOR spinels are rather similar having comparable cell edges and oxygen positional parameters. The cation distribution allows the determination of an intracrystalline temperature in the range 560-750 °C. Spinels from LB can be divided in two groups with very different oxygen positional parameter and cell edges. The intracrystalline temperature is <640 °C for the first group and >680 °C for the second. There is a similarity of Vcell between the CAM, MOR and LBI cpx (< 434 Å3) while those from LBII show Vcell >435 Å3. According to their REE contents, CAM cpx can be divided in 2 groups (depleted and enriched in LREE compared to CPX-DMM), in MOR there are two, both enriched, but with different behavior of the LREE suggesting evolutions starting from a DMM like composition. LB cpx show 4 groups, all of them being more or less depleted. The OH contents are lowest for the LB cpx (100-300 ppm H2O), while the CAM samples are intermediate (200-400 ppm H2O) and the MOR samples show the highest contents (380-610 ppm H2O). Boron is nearly absent apart from two samples (one olivine and one cpx) from CAM. The xenoliths sampled from a probably juvenile lithosphere at the edge of the Cameroon and Morocco lithospheric roots apparently have cumulus-like spinels probably crystallized in situ from percolating melts and thus do not represent a real spinel-peridotites facies; on the contrary peridotite mantle xenoliths from Libya exhibit spinels with features compatible with a slow ascent of a mantle plume. The juvenile behaviors shown by CAM and MOR spinels seem also to be reflected by the cpx-HREE patterns showing typical DMM features. As opposed, for LB ones, where very depleted HREE patterns appear, recent chemical changes seem to have been superimposed to ancient (and/or deeper?) depletion. Funding was provided by the FRA 2013 project of the Trieste University.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/2845675
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