An overview of the issue of air pollution from mobile sources is presented in the present chapter. The chapter is divided into three sections. The first section contains a general introduction on specific aspects of air pollution from internal combustion engines. The topics covered include a description of the primary and secondary pollutants formed and their adverse effects on health and the environment; the mechanisms of pollutant formation and, consequently, the factors which affect their formation; and a historical perspective of the legislative measures progressively introduced over the years. Finally, a brief description of the abatement strategies which may be generally adopted will be given (primary methods v secondary methods). The second section describes the state-of-the-art pollution abatement technologies for gasoline, lean-burn and diesel engines. The third section describes aspects related to pollution abatement in the marine sector. Air pollution abatement from ships is of high current interest due the recent and on-going introduction of legislation in the area. The specific problems associated with the marine sector are described, along with the strategies/technologies adopted to affront these problems. However, thanks in part to the success achieved, there has been a shift in emphasis of the focus of the problem, which has evolved from gasoline-fuelled engines, to diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines to, more recently, off-road vehicles and marine engines. The present contribution will centre on the development of emission abatement from road vehicles, which have been largely responsible for the technological advances made in the field; and marine engines, which have recently become the subject of attention and can be considered to represent the challenge for the future. The situation regarding off-road vehicles will not be specifically considered as related solutions are derived from the above quoted areas. The contribution is based on a seminar held at the summer school of the International Ph. D in Environmental Science and Engineering, Cagliary, September 2008.

Air Pollution from Mobile Sources: Formation and effects and Abatement Strategies

HICKEY, JAMES NEIL;BOSCARATO, ILAN;KASPAR, JAN
2014

Abstract

An overview of the issue of air pollution from mobile sources is presented in the present chapter. The chapter is divided into three sections. The first section contains a general introduction on specific aspects of air pollution from internal combustion engines. The topics covered include a description of the primary and secondary pollutants formed and their adverse effects on health and the environment; the mechanisms of pollutant formation and, consequently, the factors which affect their formation; and a historical perspective of the legislative measures progressively introduced over the years. Finally, a brief description of the abatement strategies which may be generally adopted will be given (primary methods v secondary methods). The second section describes the state-of-the-art pollution abatement technologies for gasoline, lean-burn and diesel engines. The third section describes aspects related to pollution abatement in the marine sector. Air pollution abatement from ships is of high current interest due the recent and on-going introduction of legislation in the area. The specific problems associated with the marine sector are described, along with the strategies/technologies adopted to affront these problems. However, thanks in part to the success achieved, there has been a shift in emphasis of the focus of the problem, which has evolved from gasoline-fuelled engines, to diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines to, more recently, off-road vehicles and marine engines. The present contribution will centre on the development of emission abatement from road vehicles, which have been largely responsible for the technological advances made in the field; and marine engines, which have recently become the subject of attention and can be considered to represent the challenge for the future. The situation regarding off-road vehicles will not be specifically considered as related solutions are derived from the above quoted areas. The contribution is based on a seminar held at the summer school of the International Ph. D in Environmental Science and Engineering, Cagliary, September 2008.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/2809124
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