The main immune defences of the honeybees are the cellular responses represented by phagocytosis and melanisation. There are a number of factors that could impact on the honeybees’ immune system and, therefore, increase their susceptibility to disease and lower their survivorship, such as: exposure to pesticides in the air, pollen, nectar and water; fungicides from both field and in-hive treatments; varroacides; the pest Varroa destructor; antibiotics used in in-hive treatments; fungal pathogens such Nosema apis and the emerging Nosema ceranae; bacterial and viral infections. More important, we highlight the interactions among different chemicals and their synergistic effects with diseases in the immune suppression of individuals and on the colony. The present study uses methodologies that can describe the health status of the honeybees, such as total hemocyte counts (THCs), the activities of the plasmatic phenoloxidase (PO) and its inactive form (proPO), to assess the immune competence of individuals. Specimens of Apis mellifera ligustica were collected in summer and early autumn from beehives located in S. Giovanni (Trieste, “control site”) and from hives placed in Domio (Trieste, “polluted site”). In both seasons the statistical comparison showed a greater number of circulating hemocytes in honeybees from Domio compared to the numbers recorded in those from S. Giovanni. The Domio’s honeybees showed a lower PO and proPO activities than those from S. Giovanni. It should be noted that 52% of the bees collected from the hives in Domio had one or two individuals of Varroa destructor on the tergites of the thorax. The higher PO and proPO activities recorded in the bees from S. Giovanni site are probably due to the different quality of the environment in the two sampling sites indicating a depression of non-specific immune competence and an increased susceptibility to Varroa destructor parasites in the honeybees from the polluted site of Domio.

Analysis of hematological parameters of Apis mellifera ligustica (Spinola, 1806) in a polluted site (Chapter 10)

BATTISTELLA, SILVIA;GIULIANINI, PIERO GIULIO
2014

Abstract

The main immune defences of the honeybees are the cellular responses represented by phagocytosis and melanisation. There are a number of factors that could impact on the honeybees’ immune system and, therefore, increase their susceptibility to disease and lower their survivorship, such as: exposure to pesticides in the air, pollen, nectar and water; fungicides from both field and in-hive treatments; varroacides; the pest Varroa destructor; antibiotics used in in-hive treatments; fungal pathogens such Nosema apis and the emerging Nosema ceranae; bacterial and viral infections. More important, we highlight the interactions among different chemicals and their synergistic effects with diseases in the immune suppression of individuals and on the colony. The present study uses methodologies that can describe the health status of the honeybees, such as total hemocyte counts (THCs), the activities of the plasmatic phenoloxidase (PO) and its inactive form (proPO), to assess the immune competence of individuals. Specimens of Apis mellifera ligustica were collected in summer and early autumn from beehives located in S. Giovanni (Trieste, “control site”) and from hives placed in Domio (Trieste, “polluted site”). In both seasons the statistical comparison showed a greater number of circulating hemocytes in honeybees from Domio compared to the numbers recorded in those from S. Giovanni. The Domio’s honeybees showed a lower PO and proPO activities than those from S. Giovanni. It should be noted that 52% of the bees collected from the hives in Domio had one or two individuals of Varroa destructor on the tergites of the thorax. The higher PO and proPO activities recorded in the bees from S. Giovanni site are probably due to the different quality of the environment in the two sampling sites indicating a depression of non-specific immune competence and an increased susceptibility to Varroa destructor parasites in the honeybees from the polluted site of Domio.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/2835574
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact