Few studies are available in literature on the risk for humans from skin exposure to gasolines. This work is focused on the in vitro skin penetration of benzene (carcinogenic substance), toluene and xylenes. We examined three commercial gasolines using the Franz diffusion cells and human abdominal full thickness skin. Gasoline composition was determined using a multi-dimensional gas chromatographic (MDGC) technique. Aromatic compounds into the receptor fluid, consisting of saline solution were quantitated by a gas chromatography technique equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC–FID) and coupled with a headspace-solid phase micro extraction system (HS-SPME). Among the three substances, benzene showed the highest average apparent permeability coefficient (Kp = 43.8 × 10−5 cm h−1) compared to toluene (Kp = 6.48 × 10−5 cm h−1) and xylenes (Kp = 0.84 × 10−5 cm h−1). This value could be explained by the lower boiling point and higher water solubility of benzene. Lag times were about 1 h for benzene and 2 h for toluene and xylenes. Averaged total recoveries in the receptor fluid were 0.43% of dose for benzene, 0.06% for toluene and 0.008% for xylenes. A statistical significative difference (Student’s t-test, P < 0.05) between the fluxes calculated for the three gasolines are noted only for xylene and for toluene between gasolines #1 (richer in aromatic compounds) and #3. The obtained apparent permeability coefficient are useful for determining the permeability of these aromatics components from gasolines of a different composition. Hands exposure risk, calculated using RfD and RfC as defined by US EPA, is critical for benzene. The risk of skin permeation of gasoline, and, in particular, of benzene, should be better evaluated for those workers who have a large potential for exposure. Adequate personal protective equipment should be used in the high exposure jobs, mainly for hands and forearms.

Penetration of benzene, toluene and xylenes contained in gasolines through human abdominal skin in vitro

ADAMI, GIANPIERO;LARESE FILON, FRANCESCA;BARBIERI, PIERLUIGI;REISENHOFER, EDOARDO
2006

Abstract

Few studies are available in literature on the risk for humans from skin exposure to gasolines. This work is focused on the in vitro skin penetration of benzene (carcinogenic substance), toluene and xylenes. We examined three commercial gasolines using the Franz diffusion cells and human abdominal full thickness skin. Gasoline composition was determined using a multi-dimensional gas chromatographic (MDGC) technique. Aromatic compounds into the receptor fluid, consisting of saline solution were quantitated by a gas chromatography technique equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC–FID) and coupled with a headspace-solid phase micro extraction system (HS-SPME). Among the three substances, benzene showed the highest average apparent permeability coefficient (Kp = 43.8 × 10−5 cm h−1) compared to toluene (Kp = 6.48 × 10−5 cm h−1) and xylenes (Kp = 0.84 × 10−5 cm h−1). This value could be explained by the lower boiling point and higher water solubility of benzene. Lag times were about 1 h for benzene and 2 h for toluene and xylenes. Averaged total recoveries in the receptor fluid were 0.43% of dose for benzene, 0.06% for toluene and 0.008% for xylenes. A statistical significative difference (Student’s t-test, P < 0.05) between the fluxes calculated for the three gasolines are noted only for xylene and for toluene between gasolines #1 (richer in aromatic compounds) and #3. The obtained apparent permeability coefficient are useful for determining the permeability of these aromatics components from gasolines of a different composition. Hands exposure risk, calculated using RfD and RfC as defined by US EPA, is critical for benzene. The risk of skin permeation of gasoline, and, in particular, of benzene, should be better evaluated for those workers who have a large potential for exposure. Adequate personal protective equipment should be used in the high exposure jobs, mainly for hands and forearms.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/1693329
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