It is well known that contact with metals can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis; also, there is experimental evidence that nickel ions are readily available on the surface of used coins containing nickel and copper. The aim of this study was to prove that metal powders of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) dispersed in synthetic sweat are oxidised into respective ions that can permeate the skin. Suspensions of 5 g of metal powder (Ni, Co and Cr) in 100 mL of synthetic sweat at pH 6.5 were prepared and shaken with a stirring plate at room temperature for 30 min. Human skin membranes were set up in Franz-diffusion cells and 2 mL of the freshly made suspension were applied to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. The appearance of metal ions in the aqueous receptor phase (NaCl 0.9%) was quantified by Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS). Also, metals ions were analysed using Differential Pulse Polarography (DDP), Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques both in the receiving phase and in the donor solution to evaluate the presence of different ionic metallic species. DPP and DPV measurements of cobalt and nickel suspensions confirmed the presence of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions in concentration, respectively of 33.3 ± 3.2 and 27.1 ± 3.2 mg L−1. Chromium ions concentration below 0.1 mg L−1 were found in chromium suspensions bearing evidence of synthetic sweat inefficacy of oxidising chromium metal powder. Cobalt and nickel skin permeation was demonstrated in in vitro experiments using the Franz cell system giving a permeation flux of 0.0123 ± 0.0054 μg cm−2 h−1 for cobalt and of 0.0165 ± 0.00036 μg cm−2 h−1 for nickel and a lag time of 1.55 ± 0.71 h for cobalt and of 14.56 ± 0.56 for nickel. Chromium below 0.1 μg L−1 was found in the receiving solutions. Our experiments demonstrated that metallic nickel and cobalt can be oxidised when suspended in synthetic sweat, while chromium would probably need stronger oxidising conditions. Metallic ions can permeate the skin and the Franz cell system showed that it is possible to measure a flux of ions through the skin for cobalt and nickel but not for chromium.

In vitro percutaneous absorption of metal compounds

LARESE FILON, FRANCESCA;ADAMI, GIANPIERO;
2007

Abstract

It is well known that contact with metals can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis; also, there is experimental evidence that nickel ions are readily available on the surface of used coins containing nickel and copper. The aim of this study was to prove that metal powders of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) dispersed in synthetic sweat are oxidised into respective ions that can permeate the skin. Suspensions of 5 g of metal powder (Ni, Co and Cr) in 100 mL of synthetic sweat at pH 6.5 were prepared and shaken with a stirring plate at room temperature for 30 min. Human skin membranes were set up in Franz-diffusion cells and 2 mL of the freshly made suspension were applied to the outer surface of the skin for 24 h. The appearance of metal ions in the aqueous receptor phase (NaCl 0.9%) was quantified by Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS). Also, metals ions were analysed using Differential Pulse Polarography (DDP), Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques both in the receiving phase and in the donor solution to evaluate the presence of different ionic metallic species. DPP and DPV measurements of cobalt and nickel suspensions confirmed the presence of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions in concentration, respectively of 33.3 ± 3.2 and 27.1 ± 3.2 mg L−1. Chromium ions concentration below 0.1 mg L−1 were found in chromium suspensions bearing evidence of synthetic sweat inefficacy of oxidising chromium metal powder. Cobalt and nickel skin permeation was demonstrated in in vitro experiments using the Franz cell system giving a permeation flux of 0.0123 ± 0.0054 μg cm−2 h−1 for cobalt and of 0.0165 ± 0.00036 μg cm−2 h−1 for nickel and a lag time of 1.55 ± 0.71 h for cobalt and of 14.56 ± 0.56 for nickel. Chromium below 0.1 μg L−1 was found in the receiving solutions. Our experiments demonstrated that metallic nickel and cobalt can be oxidised when suspended in synthetic sweat, while chromium would probably need stronger oxidising conditions. Metallic ions can permeate the skin and the Franz cell system showed that it is possible to measure a flux of ions through the skin for cobalt and nickel but not for chromium.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/1693334
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