This short-term (72- to 96-hour) in vitro study on fibroblasts evaluated the biocompatibility of 3 single-phase dental alloys by determining cellular proliferation rates and the expression of a glycoprotein, fibronectin, which is involved in cellular adhesion processes. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Flow 2002 fibroblasts were cultured together with 3 single-phase dental alloys of different composition. Proliferation rates were determined by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Fibronectin expression was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: At 72 hours, cells cultured with the alloy containing the lowest amount of noble elements (gold, platinum, and palladium) and the highest amount of silver exhibited significantly less proliferation than did controls. At 96 hours, only cultures with the alloy containing the greatest amount of noble elements behaved in a way similar to controls. Fibronectin organization in fibrils and in focal adhesions was correlated to higher cellular proliferation rates. CONCLUSION: Fibronectin organization could be a useful tool to determine the biocompatibility of dental alloys. Among the noble elements, palladium by itself exhibits very good biocompatibility. These indications could be useful for practitioners in the choice of the best alloy for specific clinical applications.
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