Fenofibrate has beneficial effects on the progression and clinical emergence of atherosclerosis in normoglycemic and in diabetic patients. Given the involvement of endothelium in these processes, we speculated that fenofibrate may influence endothelial cell apoptosis and proliferation, regulators of endothelium integrity. Fenofibrate effects on apoptosis and proliferation were studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under normal (5.5 mmol/l, NG) and high (22 mmol/l, HG) glucose with or without fenofibrate (50 micromol/l). Apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V, by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein cleavage, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Bax/Bcl-2, and p53 protein levels; proliferation was assessed by determining cell cycle phase distribution and the amounts of the cell cycle regulators E2F1, cyclin D1, E1, and A and the levels of the hyper-phosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma protein (ppRb). HG resulted in increased (p<0.05) apoptosis rate associated with COX-2 protein overexpression, without modification of Bax/Bcl2 ratio and p53 levels. Fenofibrate decreased apoptosis and normalized increased COX-2 expression in HG (p<0.05). Both in HG and NG, fenofibrate dramatically reduced cell proliferation (p<0.05) through a G1/G0 block mediated by the reduction in ppRb and the decrease in E2F1, cyclin E1, A, and D1 protein expression, with a mechanism that, for cyclin E1, occurred at the posttranscriptional level. In conclusion, our data show that fenofibrate reduces apoptosis caused by HG but severely interferes with endothelial cell proliferation both in NG and HG. The resulting effect may influence endothelium integrity in vivo and may impact the outcome of acute complications of atherosclerosis in diabetes

Inhibitory effects of fenofibrate on apoptosis and cell proliferation in human endothelial cells in high glucose

ZANETTI, MICHELA;DAPAS, BARBARA;FARRA, ROSSELLA;BOSUTTI, ALESSANDRA;BARAZZONI, ROCCO;BOSSI, FLEUR;GIANSANTE, CARLO;TEDESCO, FRANCESCO;CATTIN, LUIGI;GUARNIERI, GIANFRANCO;GRASSI, GABRIELE
2008

Abstract

Fenofibrate has beneficial effects on the progression and clinical emergence of atherosclerosis in normoglycemic and in diabetic patients. Given the involvement of endothelium in these processes, we speculated that fenofibrate may influence endothelial cell apoptosis and proliferation, regulators of endothelium integrity. Fenofibrate effects on apoptosis and proliferation were studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under normal (5.5 mmol/l, NG) and high (22 mmol/l, HG) glucose with or without fenofibrate (50 micromol/l). Apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V, by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein cleavage, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Bax/Bcl-2, and p53 protein levels; proliferation was assessed by determining cell cycle phase distribution and the amounts of the cell cycle regulators E2F1, cyclin D1, E1, and A and the levels of the hyper-phosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma protein (ppRb). HG resulted in increased (p<0.05) apoptosis rate associated with COX-2 protein overexpression, without modification of Bax/Bcl2 ratio and p53 levels. Fenofibrate decreased apoptosis and normalized increased COX-2 expression in HG (p<0.05). Both in HG and NG, fenofibrate dramatically reduced cell proliferation (p<0.05) through a G1/G0 block mediated by the reduction in ppRb and the decrease in E2F1, cyclin E1, A, and D1 protein expression, with a mechanism that, for cyclin E1, occurred at the posttranscriptional level. In conclusion, our data show that fenofibrate reduces apoptosis caused by HG but severely interferes with endothelial cell proliferation both in NG and HG. The resulting effect may influence endothelium integrity in vivo and may impact the outcome of acute complications of atherosclerosis in diabetes
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/1844915
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