In recent years, a number of different mechanisms regulating gene expressions, either in normal or in pathological conditions, have been discovered. This review aims to highlight some of the regulatory pathways involved during the HIV-1 infection and disease progression, focusing on the novel discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) and their relation with immune system's agents. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family of proteins plays a key role because it is a crucial modulator of the immune response; here we will examine recent findings, centering especially on HLA-C and -G, novel players lately discovered to engage in modulation of immune system. We hope to provide novel perspectives useful to find out original therapeutic roads against HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression.
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