Introduction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of biological complications associated to implant-supported prostheses, in light of different risk factors such as the “compliance” and the periodontal disease (PD). Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of 194 patients with a mean age of 61.6 ± 12.3 years (age range 28-89 years), for a total of 467 osseointegrated implants. The medical history was collected and a full clinical and radiological examination was performed for each patient. Results. 40% of patients (38% of implants) were affected by peri-implant mucositis (M) while 32% of patients (27% of implants) presented peri-implantitis (P). The major part of healthy patients (n=32) showed a plaque index (PI) < 25%, 19 patients showed a PI in a range of 25-75%, only one healthy patient presented a PI>75%. Patients with a previous history of PD had a prevalence of P of 36% in respect with a prevalence of 8% for patients without PD. It was observed an increase of P over the time, with a prevalence of 27% in the first five years after the implant insertion, 34% between six and ten years after positioning and 39% after ten years. After ten years from implant insertion, 80% of patients showed M or P. This percentage was superimposable to that observed in patients with a PI > 75% but treated in a period of less than five years. Conclusions. Results agree with data of the literature showing an high percentage of biological complications associated to implant treatment. The prevalence of complications is influenced by numerous risk factors such as a previous PD or an inadequate oral hygiene. Furthermore, data shows that the “compliance” decreases over the time and for this reason a strict recall programme with a reinforcement of motivation, is essential to prevent biological long-time complications.
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