Nanoparticles (NPs) skin absorption is a wide issue, which needs to be better understood. The attempt of this review is to summarize the scientific evidence concerning open questions, i.e.: the role of NPs intrinsic characteristics (size, shape, charge, surface properties), the penetration of NPs through the intact or impaired skin barrier, the penetration pathways which should be considered and the role of NPs interaction in physiological media. The outcomes suggest that one main difference should be made between metal and non-metal NPs. Both kinds have a secondary NPs size which is given after interaction in physiological media, and allows a size-dependent skin penetration: NPs 6 4 nm can penetrate and permeate intact skin, NPs size between 4 and 20 nm can potentially permeate intact and damaged skin, NPs size between 21 and 45 nm can penetrate and permeate only damaged skin, NPs size > 45 nm cannot penetrate nor permeate the skin. Other aspects play an important role, mostly for metal NPs, i.e., dissolution in physiological media, which can cause local and systemic effects, the sensitizing or toxic potential and the tendency to create aggregates. This paper suggests a decision tree to evaluate the potential risk for consumers and workers exposed to NPs.

Nanoparticles skin absorption: new aspects for a safety profile evaluation

LARESE FILON, FRANCESCA;MAURO, MARCELLA;ADAMI, GIANPIERO;BOVENZI, MASSIMO;CROSERA, MATTEO
2015

Abstract

Nanoparticles (NPs) skin absorption is a wide issue, which needs to be better understood. The attempt of this review is to summarize the scientific evidence concerning open questions, i.e.: the role of NPs intrinsic characteristics (size, shape, charge, surface properties), the penetration of NPs through the intact or impaired skin barrier, the penetration pathways which should be considered and the role of NPs interaction in physiological media. The outcomes suggest that one main difference should be made between metal and non-metal NPs. Both kinds have a secondary NPs size which is given after interaction in physiological media, and allows a size-dependent skin penetration: NPs 6 4 nm can penetrate and permeate intact skin, NPs size between 4 and 20 nm can potentially permeate intact and damaged skin, NPs size between 21 and 45 nm can penetrate and permeate only damaged skin, NPs size > 45 nm cannot penetrate nor permeate the skin. Other aspects play an important role, mostly for metal NPs, i.e., dissolution in physiological media, which can cause local and systemic effects, the sensitizing or toxic potential and the tendency to create aggregates. This paper suggests a decision tree to evaluate the potential risk for consumers and workers exposed to NPs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/2840603
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