mpressive properties make graphene-based materials (GBMs) promising tools for nanoelectronics and biomedicine. However, safety concerns need to be cleared before mass production of GBMs starts. As skin, together with lungs, displays the highest exposure to GBMs, it is of fundamental importance to understand what happens when GBMs get in contact with skin cells. The present study was carried out on HaCaT keratinocytes, an in vitro model of skin toxicity, on which the effects of four GBMs were evaluated: A few layer graphene, prepared by ball-milling treatment (FLG), and three samples of graphene oxide (GOs, a research-grade GO1, and two commercial GOs, GO2 and GO3). Even though no significant effects were observed after 24 h, after 72 h the less oxidized compound (FLG) was the less cytotoxic, inducing mitochondrial and plasma-membrane damages with EC 50 s of 62.8 μg/mL (WST-8 assay) and 45.5 μg/mL (propidium iodide uptake), respectively. By contrast, the largest and most oxidized compound, GO3, was the most cytotoxic, inducing mitochondrial and plasma-membrane damages with EC 50 s of 5.4 and 2.9 μg/mL, respectively. These results suggest that only high concentrations and long exposure times to FLG and GOs could impair mitochondrial activity associated with plasma membrane damage, suggesting low cytotoxic effects at the skin level.

Differential cytotoxic effects of graphene and graphene oxide on skin keratinocytes

PELIN, MARCO;FUSCO, LAURA;SOSA, SILVIO;TUBARO, AURELIA;PRATO, MAURIZIO
2017

Abstract

mpressive properties make graphene-based materials (GBMs) promising tools for nanoelectronics and biomedicine. However, safety concerns need to be cleared before mass production of GBMs starts. As skin, together with lungs, displays the highest exposure to GBMs, it is of fundamental importance to understand what happens when GBMs get in contact with skin cells. The present study was carried out on HaCaT keratinocytes, an in vitro model of skin toxicity, on which the effects of four GBMs were evaluated: A few layer graphene, prepared by ball-milling treatment (FLG), and three samples of graphene oxide (GOs, a research-grade GO1, and two commercial GOs, GO2 and GO3). Even though no significant effects were observed after 24 h, after 72 h the less oxidized compound (FLG) was the less cytotoxic, inducing mitochondrial and plasma-membrane damages with EC 50 s of 62.8 μg/mL (WST-8 assay) and 45.5 μg/mL (propidium iodide uptake), respectively. By contrast, the largest and most oxidized compound, GO3, was the most cytotoxic, inducing mitochondrial and plasma-membrane damages with EC 50 s of 5.4 and 2.9 μg/mL, respectively. These results suggest that only high concentrations and long exposure times to FLG and GOs could impair mitochondrial activity associated with plasma membrane damage, suggesting low cytotoxic effects at the skin level.
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep40572
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/2892434
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