Nowadays, the pollution caused by the massive use of fossil fuel is a well-known critical issue makes the design of the electrical machines a crucial task because the vast majority of the industrial or household applications are integrated with this kind of technology; hence improving the efficiency of electric motors is expected to result in an extraordinary benefit in terms of energy saving. On the other side, the increasing use of renewable energies (like wind energy, hydropower, tidal energy), combined with the distributed generation concept, call for new electric machine technology and for modern design approaches. This doctoral thesis has been mainly focused on finding analytical procedures to model and analyze some types of electrical machines which are of interest for renewable and distributed generation. The use of analytical approaches is, in some cases, fundamental because numerical methods, mostly based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA), are very inefficient in terms of required time and computation resources. The types of electrical machines considered in this work are various. The attention is first placed on the slotless surface permanent magnet (SPM) topology (with different types of rotor magnetization). Wound-field synchronous generators with both three phase or multiphase stator are then considered. For the various kinds of the machines taken into account, some modeling, design and analysis studies have been conducted in the attempt to fill some gaps in the existing technical literature. In the first part of the thesis the purely analytical modeling of slotless SPM machines is addressed. In the work, it has been considered how the stator slotless design can be combined with different surface permanent magnet rotor topologies. The main efforts of the study have been addressed to the purpose of finding an explicit analytical expression to compute slotless machine torque and no-load back-EMF, covering all the SPM rotor topologies of interest. The subsequent part of the thesis, is about the analytical computation of end-coil leakage inductance in concentric windings. For a good dynamic modeling of machines equipping this kind of winding, it is useful that their mathematical model is implemented and that model parameters are identified with good accuracy. The proposed technique shows a very good accordance compared with a 3D FEA simulation and is also validated though tests conducted on a dedicated experimental set-up. Multiphase machines are attractive for many energy-saving fault-tolerant applications thanks to their higher efficiency and intrinsic resilience to faults. A challenging task in the modeling of multiphase machines for design and simulation is identifying the self and mutual inductances due to leakage fluxes. In this thesis is also presented a novel approach for the leakage inductance determination in multiphase machines based on routine tests combined with very simple 2D magnetostatic FEA simulations. The subsequent part of the thesis is about the design of wound-field synchronous generators specifically required to operate in a distributed generation system where significant fluctuations are known to frequently occur in both voltage and frequency. Design provisions are investigated to improve the generator resilience to these grid disturbances. In the last part of this thesis the attention is focused on multiphase alternators interfaced to DC distribution systems through multiple rectifiers. As a new finding presented as a part of this investigation, it is shown that a short circuit fault occurring on AC/DC rectifier terminals generates a strongly oscillatory behavior with much larger current peaks than could be predicted with conventional models regarding short circuit transients in DC networks.

Modeling and analysis of special electrical machines for distributed generation

BORTOLOZZI, MAURO
2017-05-26

Abstract

Nowadays, the pollution caused by the massive use of fossil fuel is a well-known critical issue makes the design of the electrical machines a crucial task because the vast majority of the industrial or household applications are integrated with this kind of technology; hence improving the efficiency of electric motors is expected to result in an extraordinary benefit in terms of energy saving. On the other side, the increasing use of renewable energies (like wind energy, hydropower, tidal energy), combined with the distributed generation concept, call for new electric machine technology and for modern design approaches. This doctoral thesis has been mainly focused on finding analytical procedures to model and analyze some types of electrical machines which are of interest for renewable and distributed generation. The use of analytical approaches is, in some cases, fundamental because numerical methods, mostly based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA), are very inefficient in terms of required time and computation resources. The types of electrical machines considered in this work are various. The attention is first placed on the slotless surface permanent magnet (SPM) topology (with different types of rotor magnetization). Wound-field synchronous generators with both three phase or multiphase stator are then considered. For the various kinds of the machines taken into account, some modeling, design and analysis studies have been conducted in the attempt to fill some gaps in the existing technical literature. In the first part of the thesis the purely analytical modeling of slotless SPM machines is addressed. In the work, it has been considered how the stator slotless design can be combined with different surface permanent magnet rotor topologies. The main efforts of the study have been addressed to the purpose of finding an explicit analytical expression to compute slotless machine torque and no-load back-EMF, covering all the SPM rotor topologies of interest. The subsequent part of the thesis, is about the analytical computation of end-coil leakage inductance in concentric windings. For a good dynamic modeling of machines equipping this kind of winding, it is useful that their mathematical model is implemented and that model parameters are identified with good accuracy. The proposed technique shows a very good accordance compared with a 3D FEA simulation and is also validated though tests conducted on a dedicated experimental set-up. Multiphase machines are attractive for many energy-saving fault-tolerant applications thanks to their higher efficiency and intrinsic resilience to faults. A challenging task in the modeling of multiphase machines for design and simulation is identifying the self and mutual inductances due to leakage fluxes. In this thesis is also presented a novel approach for the leakage inductance determination in multiphase machines based on routine tests combined with very simple 2D magnetostatic FEA simulations. The subsequent part of the thesis is about the design of wound-field synchronous generators specifically required to operate in a distributed generation system where significant fluctuations are known to frequently occur in both voltage and frequency. Design provisions are investigated to improve the generator resilience to these grid disturbances. In the last part of this thesis the attention is focused on multiphase alternators interfaced to DC distribution systems through multiple rectifiers. As a new finding presented as a part of this investigation, it is shown that a short circuit fault occurring on AC/DC rectifier terminals generates a strongly oscillatory behavior with much larger current peaks than could be predicted with conventional models regarding short circuit transients in DC networks.
TESSAROLO, ALBERTO
29
2015/2016
Settore ING-IND/08 - Macchine a Fluido
Università degli Studi di Trieste
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/2908185
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