OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of sublingual ketorolac versus sublingual tramadol in reducing the pain associated with fracture or dislocation of extremities in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A double-blind, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted in the paediatric emergency department of a research institute. One hundred and thirty-one children aged 4-17 years with suspected bone fracture or dislocation were enrolled. Eligible children were randomised to ketorolac (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo, or to tramadol (2 mg/kg) and placebo by sublingual administration, using a double-dummy technique. Pain was assessed by the patients every 20 min, for a maximum period of 2 h, using the McGrath scale for patients up to 6 years of age, and the Visual Analogue Scale for those older than 6 years of age. RESULTS: The mean pain scores fell significantly from eight to four and five in the ketorolac and tramadol groups, respectively, by 100 min (Wilcoxon sign rank test, p<0.001). The mean pain scores for ketorolac were lower than those for tramadol, but these differences were not significant at any time point (Mann-Whitney U Test, p values: 0-20 min: 0.167; 20-40 min: 0.314; 40-60 min: 0.223; 60-80 min: 0.348; 80-100 min: 0.166; 100-120 min: 0.08). The rescue dose of paracetamol-codeine was administered in 2/60 children in the ketorolac group versus 8/65 in the tramadol group (Fisher exact test, p=0.098). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the frequency of adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: Both sublingual ketorolac and tramadol were equally effective for pain management in children with suspected fractures or dislocations.

Sublingual ketorolac versus sublingual tramadol for moderate to severe post-traumatic bone pain in children: A double-blind, randomised, controlled trial

Neri, Elena;Maestro, Alessandra;MINEN, FEDERICO;Montico, Marcella;Ronfani, Luca;ZANON, DAVIDE;FAVRET, ANNA;Barbi, Egidio
2013

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of sublingual ketorolac versus sublingual tramadol in reducing the pain associated with fracture or dislocation of extremities in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A double-blind, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted in the paediatric emergency department of a research institute. One hundred and thirty-one children aged 4-17 years with suspected bone fracture or dislocation were enrolled. Eligible children were randomised to ketorolac (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo, or to tramadol (2 mg/kg) and placebo by sublingual administration, using a double-dummy technique. Pain was assessed by the patients every 20 min, for a maximum period of 2 h, using the McGrath scale for patients up to 6 years of age, and the Visual Analogue Scale for those older than 6 years of age. RESULTS: The mean pain scores fell significantly from eight to four and five in the ketorolac and tramadol groups, respectively, by 100 min (Wilcoxon sign rank test, p<0.001). The mean pain scores for ketorolac were lower than those for tramadol, but these differences were not significant at any time point (Mann-Whitney U Test, p values: 0-20 min: 0.167; 20-40 min: 0.314; 40-60 min: 0.223; 60-80 min: 0.348; 80-100 min: 0.166; 100-120 min: 0.08). The rescue dose of paracetamol-codeine was administered in 2/60 children in the ketorolac group versus 8/65 in the tramadol group (Fisher exact test, p=0.098). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the frequency of adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: Both sublingual ketorolac and tramadol were equally effective for pain management in children with suspected fractures or dislocations.
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http://adc.bmj.com/content/98/9/721.full.pdf+html
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/2915892
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