OBJECTIVE: To support a rational use of preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Single university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 588 (mean age 68.5 ± 9.6 yr) consecutive patients who received IABP before cardiac surgery from 1999 to 2016. INTERVENTIONS: Coronary surgery was performed in 573 (97.4%) cases. IABP indications were prophylaxis (n = 147), unstable angina (n = 239), and rapid worsening of hemodynamics (n = 202). Baseline characteristics of patients were analyzed with multivariable methods. Comparison of outcomes postsurgery between 74 patients undergoing IABP because of left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) (stenosis ≥ 50%) and a new series of 1,360 patients experiencing LMCAD but who did not receive an IABP using propensity-score matching. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Throughout the study period, the rate of IABP use for prophylaxis and unstable angina increased (p = 0.0029) despite reduction in patient surgical risk (p = 0.0051). Early period of surgery (p = 0.032), rapid worsening of hemodynamics in the operating room (p = 0.0029), renal impairment (p < 0.0001), and ventilation before surgery (p = 0.0032) were predictors of in-hospital mortality. The cumulative rate of IABP-related complications was 6.8%. Current smoking (p = 0.025) and the use of a 9 Fr catheter (p = 0.0017) were predictors of IABP-related vascular complications. No difference was found regarding outcomes postsurgery for 43 pairs of IABP/non-IABP matched patients with LMCAD, even though preoperative IABP was associated with an increased use of bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative use of IABP in cardiac surgery was shown in this study to be safe, even for high-risk patients. LMCAD is not by itself a sufficient indication for prophylactic IABP.

Preoperative Intra-Aortic Counterpulsation in Cardiac Surgery: Insights From a Retrospective Series of 588 Consecutive High-Risk Patients

Gatti G
;
Morra L;Castaldi G;Maschietto L;Fabris E;Perkan A;Sinagra G;
2018-01-01

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To support a rational use of preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Single university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 588 (mean age 68.5 ± 9.6 yr) consecutive patients who received IABP before cardiac surgery from 1999 to 2016. INTERVENTIONS: Coronary surgery was performed in 573 (97.4%) cases. IABP indications were prophylaxis (n = 147), unstable angina (n = 239), and rapid worsening of hemodynamics (n = 202). Baseline characteristics of patients were analyzed with multivariable methods. Comparison of outcomes postsurgery between 74 patients undergoing IABP because of left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) (stenosis ≥ 50%) and a new series of 1,360 patients experiencing LMCAD but who did not receive an IABP using propensity-score matching. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Throughout the study period, the rate of IABP use for prophylaxis and unstable angina increased (p = 0.0029) despite reduction in patient surgical risk (p = 0.0051). Early period of surgery (p = 0.032), rapid worsening of hemodynamics in the operating room (p = 0.0029), renal impairment (p < 0.0001), and ventilation before surgery (p = 0.0032) were predictors of in-hospital mortality. The cumulative rate of IABP-related complications was 6.8%. Current smoking (p = 0.025) and the use of a 9 Fr catheter (p = 0.0017) were predictors of IABP-related vascular complications. No difference was found regarding outcomes postsurgery for 43 pairs of IABP/non-IABP matched patients with LMCAD, even though preoperative IABP was associated with an increased use of bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative use of IABP in cardiac surgery was shown in this study to be safe, even for high-risk patients. LMCAD is not by itself a sufficient indication for prophylactic IABP.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/2929787
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