Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, for which licensed vaccines are not available, is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa. The O-antigen portion of lipopolysaccharide is a good target for protective immunity. Covalent conjugation of the O-antigen to a carrier protein increases its immunogenicity and O-antigen based glycoconjugate vaccines are currently under investigation at the preclinical stage. We developed a conjugation chemistry for linking O-antigen to CRM197 carrier protein, through sequential insertion of adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) and adipic acid bis(N-hydroxysuccinimide) ester (SIDEA) as linkers, without impacting O-antigen chain epitopes. Here the resulting sugar–protein connectivity has been investigated in detail. The core portion of the lipopolysaccharide was used as a model molecule to prepare CRM197 conjugates, making structural investigations easier. The first step of reductive amination with ADH involves the terminal 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO) residue of the core region. The second reaction step resulted not to be selective, as SIDEA reacted with both ADH and pyrophosphorylethanolamine (PPEtN) of the core region, independently from the pH at which the reaction was performed. Peptide mapping analysis of the deglycosylated core-CRM197 conjugates confirmed that lysine residues of CRM197 were linked to SIDEA not only through KDO-ADH but also through PPEtN. This analysis also confirmed that the conjugation chemistry is random on the protein, involving a large number of lysine residues, particularly the surface exposed ones. The method for core-CRM197 characterization was successfully extended to O-antigen-CRM197 conjugate, confirming the results obtained with the core. This study not only allowed full characterization of OAg-CRM197 conjugates, but can be applied to optimize synthesis and characterization of other OAg-based glycoconjugate vaccines. Analytical methods to investigate saccharide–protein connectivity are also of fundamental importance to study the relationship between glycoconjugate structure and immune response induced.

Investigation on Sugar-Protein Connectivity in Salmonella O-Antigen Glycoconjugate Vaccines

De Benedetto, Gianluigi;Cescutti, Paola;
2018

Abstract

Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, for which licensed vaccines are not available, is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa. The O-antigen portion of lipopolysaccharide is a good target for protective immunity. Covalent conjugation of the O-antigen to a carrier protein increases its immunogenicity and O-antigen based glycoconjugate vaccines are currently under investigation at the preclinical stage. We developed a conjugation chemistry for linking O-antigen to CRM197 carrier protein, through sequential insertion of adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) and adipic acid bis(N-hydroxysuccinimide) ester (SIDEA) as linkers, without impacting O-antigen chain epitopes. Here the resulting sugar–protein connectivity has been investigated in detail. The core portion of the lipopolysaccharide was used as a model molecule to prepare CRM197 conjugates, making structural investigations easier. The first step of reductive amination with ADH involves the terminal 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO) residue of the core region. The second reaction step resulted not to be selective, as SIDEA reacted with both ADH and pyrophosphorylethanolamine (PPEtN) of the core region, independently from the pH at which the reaction was performed. Peptide mapping analysis of the deglycosylated core-CRM197 conjugates confirmed that lysine residues of CRM197 were linked to SIDEA not only through KDO-ADH but also through PPEtN. This analysis also confirmed that the conjugation chemistry is random on the protein, involving a large number of lysine residues, particularly the surface exposed ones. The method for core-CRM197 characterization was successfully extended to O-antigen-CRM197 conjugate, confirming the results obtained with the core. This study not only allowed full characterization of OAg-CRM197 conjugates, but can be applied to optimize synthesis and characterization of other OAg-based glycoconjugate vaccines. Analytical methods to investigate saccharide–protein connectivity are also of fundamental importance to study the relationship between glycoconjugate structure and immune response induced.
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http://pubs.acs.org/journal/bcches
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/2941800
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