Arenicin-1, a β-sheet antimicrobial peptide isolated from the marine polychaeta Arenicola marina coelomocytes, has a potent, broad-spectrum microbicidal activity and also shows significant toxicity towards mammalian cells. Several variants were rationally designed to elucidate the role of structural features such as cyclization, a certain symmetry of the residue arrangement, or the presence of specific residues in the sequence, in its membranolytic activity and the consequent effect on microbicidal efficacy and toxicity. The effect of variations on the structure was probed using molecular dynamics simulations, which indicated a significant stability of the β-hairpin scaffold and showed that modifying residue symmetry and β-strand arrangement affected both the twist and the kink present in the native structure. In vitro assays against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant clinical isolates, showed that inversion of the residue arrangement improved the activity against Gram-negative strains but decreased it towards Gram-positive ones. Variants with increased symmetry were somewhat less active, whereas both backbone-cyclized and linear versions of the peptides, as well as variants with R→K and W→F replacement, showed antimicrobial activity comparable with that of the native peptide. All these variants permeabilized both the outer and the inner membranes of Escherichia coli, suggesting that a membranolytic mechanism of action was maintained. Our results indicate that the arenicin scaffold can support a considerable degree of variation while maintaining useful biological properties and can thus serve as a template for the elaboration of novel anti-infective agents.

Redesigning Arenicin-1, an Antimicrobial Peptide from the Marine Polychaeta Arenicola marina, by Strand Rearrangement or Branching, Substitution of Specific Residues, and Backbone Linearization or Cyclization

Tossi A.
2019-01-01

Abstract

Arenicin-1, a β-sheet antimicrobial peptide isolated from the marine polychaeta Arenicola marina coelomocytes, has a potent, broad-spectrum microbicidal activity and also shows significant toxicity towards mammalian cells. Several variants were rationally designed to elucidate the role of structural features such as cyclization, a certain symmetry of the residue arrangement, or the presence of specific residues in the sequence, in its membranolytic activity and the consequent effect on microbicidal efficacy and toxicity. The effect of variations on the structure was probed using molecular dynamics simulations, which indicated a significant stability of the β-hairpin scaffold and showed that modifying residue symmetry and β-strand arrangement affected both the twist and the kink present in the native structure. In vitro assays against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant clinical isolates, showed that inversion of the residue arrangement improved the activity against Gram-negative strains but decreased it towards Gram-positive ones. Variants with increased symmetry were somewhat less active, whereas both backbone-cyclized and linear versions of the peptides, as well as variants with R→K and W→F replacement, showed antimicrobial activity comparable with that of the native peptide. All these variants permeabilized both the outer and the inner membranes of Escherichia coli, suggesting that a membranolytic mechanism of action was maintained. Our results indicate that the arenicin scaffold can support a considerable degree of variation while maintaining useful biological properties and can thus serve as a template for the elaboration of novel anti-infective agents.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2019-marinedrugs-arenicins.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Tipologia: Documento in Versione Editoriale
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 2.81 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.81 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
marinedrugs-17-00376-s001.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Supplementary material
Tipologia: Altro materiale allegato
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 552.05 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
552.05 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/2945640
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 14
  • Scopus 26
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 22
social impact