Direct O-alkylation of p-tert-butyldihomooxacalix[4]arene (1) with N-(bromopropyl)-or N-(bromoethyl)phthalimides and K2 CO3 in acetonitrile was conducted under conventional heating (reflux) and using microwave irradiation and ball milling methodologies. The reactions afforded mono-and mainly distal di-substituted derivatives in the cone conformation, in a total of eight compounds. They were isolated by column chromatography, and their conformations and the substitution patterns were established by NMR spectroscopy (1 H,13 C, COSY and NOESY experiments). The X-ray structures of four dihomooxacalix[4]arene phthalimide derivatives (2a, 3a, 3b and 5a) are reported, as well as their photophysical properties. The microwave (MW)-assisted alkylations drastically reduced the reaction times (from days to less than 45 min) and produced higher yields of both 1,3-di-substituted phthalimides (3a and 6a) with higher selectivity. Ball milling did not reveal to be a good method for this kind of reaction.

Conventional vs. Microwave-or mechanically-assisted synthesis of dihomooxacalix[4]arene phthalimides: NMR, X-ray and photophysical analysis

Hickey N.;Geremia S.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Direct O-alkylation of p-tert-butyldihomooxacalix[4]arene (1) with N-(bromopropyl)-or N-(bromoethyl)phthalimides and K2 CO3 in acetonitrile was conducted under conventional heating (reflux) and using microwave irradiation and ball milling methodologies. The reactions afforded mono-and mainly distal di-substituted derivatives in the cone conformation, in a total of eight compounds. They were isolated by column chromatography, and their conformations and the substitution patterns were established by NMR spectroscopy (1 H,13 C, COSY and NOESY experiments). The X-ray structures of four dihomooxacalix[4]arene phthalimide derivatives (2a, 3a, 3b and 5a) are reported, as well as their photophysical properties. The microwave (MW)-assisted alkylations drastically reduced the reaction times (from days to less than 45 min) and produced higher yields of both 1,3-di-substituted phthalimides (3a and 6a) with higher selectivity. Ball milling did not reveal to be a good method for this kind of reaction.
10-mar-2021
Pubblicato
https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/26/6/1503
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/2991390
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