Cigarette butts (CBs) are among the dominant constituents of marine and beach litter. Few studies have been conducted, and the environmental effects of CBs on marine species are still poorly understood. This study aims to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects on marine organisms of both classic and electronic CBs. Three representative species of different trophic levels in marine ecosystems (Aliivibrio fischeri, bacteria; Phaeodactylum tricornutum, algae, primary producers; Paracentrotus lividus, echinoderms, consumers) were tested. The effects of natural ageing of CBs due to exposure to atmospheric conditions (natural sunlight vs. simulated rain) and for different times (1 vs. 2 weeks) were evaluated. The results were weighted together to obtain a synthetic hazard level to the environment (Class of Hazard) from Sediqualsoft®. Classic CBs (CCBs) performed the worst and posed a mild to moderate risk compared to electronic CBs (absent Class of Hazard). Smoked classic CBs posed a higher environmental risk than unsmoked. The highest risk was produced by classic CBs after one week of exposure in dry weather. Echinoderms and the body size reduction in normo-formed (72 h) plutei were shown to be the more sensitive organism and endpoint, respectively. We recommend the use of Sediqualsoft® software for risk assessment studies of sediments contaminated with contaminants of various types, especially in conjunction with a weight of evidence approach (WOE).

Use of sediqualsoft® to determine the toxicity of cigarette butts to marine species: A weather simulation test

Piccardo M.;Provenza F.;Terlizzi A.;Renzi M.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Cigarette butts (CBs) are among the dominant constituents of marine and beach litter. Few studies have been conducted, and the environmental effects of CBs on marine species are still poorly understood. This study aims to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects on marine organisms of both classic and electronic CBs. Three representative species of different trophic levels in marine ecosystems (Aliivibrio fischeri, bacteria; Phaeodactylum tricornutum, algae, primary producers; Paracentrotus lividus, echinoderms, consumers) were tested. The effects of natural ageing of CBs due to exposure to atmospheric conditions (natural sunlight vs. simulated rain) and for different times (1 vs. 2 weeks) were evaluated. The results were weighted together to obtain a synthetic hazard level to the environment (Class of Hazard) from Sediqualsoft®. Classic CBs (CCBs) performed the worst and posed a mild to moderate risk compared to electronic CBs (absent Class of Hazard). Smoked classic CBs posed a higher environmental risk than unsmoked. The highest risk was produced by classic CBs after one week of exposure in dry weather. Echinoderms and the body size reduction in normo-formed (72 h) plutei were shown to be the more sensitive organism and endpoint, respectively. We recommend the use of Sediqualsoft® software for risk assessment studies of sediments contaminated with contaminants of various types, especially in conjunction with a weight of evidence approach (WOE).
2021
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https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1312/9/7/734
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Descrizione: Supplementary Materials: The following are available online at www.mdpi.com/article/10.3390/jmse9070734/s1, S1. Materials and Methods: Cigarette composition, Artificial sea water (ASW) composition, Composition of the nutrients used for P. tricornutum test. Table S1: Experimental conditions required by the applied methods; Table S2: Endpoint values obtained from the analyses of negative and positive controls during experiments.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/2993400
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