Circadian heart rate (HR) is influenced by hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors particularly smoking, obesity and dyslipidemia. Until now, to evaluate the HR changes due to presence of these risk factors, a single HR office measure or a mean evaluated on day time or night time or 24h was used. However, since HR shows a circadian behavior, a single value represents only a rough approximation of this behavior. In this study, we analyzed the influence of smoking, obesity and dyslipidemia on the circadian rhythm in normotensive and hypertensive subject groups presenting only one of these risk factors. The 24h HR recordings of 170 normotensive (83 without risk factors, 20 smokers, 44 with dyslipidemia, 23 obese) and 353 hypertensive (169 without risk factors, 32 smokers, 99 with dyslipidemia, 53 obese) subjects were acquired using a Holter Blood Pressure Monitor. Results highlighted a specific circadian behavior with three characteristic periods presenting different HR means and rates of HR change in the eight subject groups. The slopes could be used both to estimate the morning HR surge associated with acute cardiovascular effects in the awakening and to evaluate the decline during the night. Moreover, we suggest to use three HR mean values (one for each identified period of the day) rather than two HR values to better describe the circadian HR behavior. Furthermore, smoking increased and dyslipidemia decreased mean HR values from 10:00 to 04:00, both in normotensive and hypertensive subjects in comparison with subjects without risk factors. In this time interval, hypertensive obese subjects showed higher values while normotensive ones presented quite similar values than subjects without risk factors. During the awakening (05:00-10:00) the slopes were similar among all groups with no significant difference among the mean HR values.

Influence of smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors on heart rate circadian rhythm in normotensive and hypertensive subjects

Accardo A.;Silveri G.
;
Ajcevic M.;Miladinovic Aleksandar;Pascazio L.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Circadian heart rate (HR) is influenced by hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors particularly smoking, obesity and dyslipidemia. Until now, to evaluate the HR changes due to presence of these risk factors, a single HR office measure or a mean evaluated on day time or night time or 24h was used. However, since HR shows a circadian behavior, a single value represents only a rough approximation of this behavior. In this study, we analyzed the influence of smoking, obesity and dyslipidemia on the circadian rhythm in normotensive and hypertensive subject groups presenting only one of these risk factors. The 24h HR recordings of 170 normotensive (83 without risk factors, 20 smokers, 44 with dyslipidemia, 23 obese) and 353 hypertensive (169 without risk factors, 32 smokers, 99 with dyslipidemia, 53 obese) subjects were acquired using a Holter Blood Pressure Monitor. Results highlighted a specific circadian behavior with three characteristic periods presenting different HR means and rates of HR change in the eight subject groups. The slopes could be used both to estimate the morning HR surge associated with acute cardiovascular effects in the awakening and to evaluate the decline during the night. Moreover, we suggest to use three HR mean values (one for each identified period of the day) rather than two HR values to better describe the circadian HR behavior. Furthermore, smoking increased and dyslipidemia decreased mean HR values from 10:00 to 04:00, both in normotensive and hypertensive subjects in comparison with subjects without risk factors. In this time interval, hypertensive obese subjects showed higher values while normotensive ones presented quite similar values than subjects without risk factors. During the awakening (05:00-10:00) the slopes were similar among all groups with no significant difference among the mean HR values.
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https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257660
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/2996357
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