Limited experimental evidence bridges nutrition and cancer immunosurveillance. Here, we show that ketogenic diet (KD) — or its principal ketone body, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), most specifically in intermittent scheduling — induced T cell–dependent tumor growth retardation of aggressive tumor models. In conditions in which anti–PD-1 alone or in combination with anti–CTLA-4 failed to reduce tumor growth in mice receiving a standard diet, KD, or oral supplementation of 3HB reestablished therapeutic responses. Supplementation of KD with sucrose (which breaks ketogenesis, abolishing 3HB production) or with a pharmacological antagonist of the 3HB receptor GPR109A abolished the antitumor effects. Mechanistically, 3HB prevented the immune checkpoint blockade–linked upregulation of PD-L1 on myeloid cells, while favoring the expansion of CXCR3+ T cells. KD induced compositional changes of the gut microbiota, with distinct species such as Eisenbergiella massiliensis commonly emerging in mice and humans subjected to carbohydrate-low diet interventions and highly correlating with serum concentrations of 3HB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that KD induces a 3HB-mediated antineoplastic effect that relies on T cell–mediated cancer immunosurveillance.

Ketogenic diet and ketone bodies enhance the anticancer effects of PD-1 blockade

Iebba V.;Asnicar F.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Limited experimental evidence bridges nutrition and cancer immunosurveillance. Here, we show that ketogenic diet (KD) — or its principal ketone body, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), most specifically in intermittent scheduling — induced T cell–dependent tumor growth retardation of aggressive tumor models. In conditions in which anti–PD-1 alone or in combination with anti–CTLA-4 failed to reduce tumor growth in mice receiving a standard diet, KD, or oral supplementation of 3HB reestablished therapeutic responses. Supplementation of KD with sucrose (which breaks ketogenesis, abolishing 3HB production) or with a pharmacological antagonist of the 3HB receptor GPR109A abolished the antitumor effects. Mechanistically, 3HB prevented the immune checkpoint blockade–linked upregulation of PD-L1 on myeloid cells, while favoring the expansion of CXCR3+ T cells. KD induced compositional changes of the gut microbiota, with distinct species such as Eisenbergiella massiliensis commonly emerging in mice and humans subjected to carbohydrate-low diet interventions and highly correlating with serum concentrations of 3HB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that KD induces a 3HB-mediated antineoplastic effect that relies on T cell–mediated cancer immunosurveillance.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3007819
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