Background: Management of recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) is still challenging. A better understanding of the natural history of rUTI could help us reduce antibiotic use and improve antibiotic stewardship. Objective: To describe the effect of risk identification, stratification, and counseling on the natural course of the disease in women with rUTI. Design, setting, and participants: A total of 373 women affected by recurrent cystitis were enrolled in this longitudinal cohort study between December 2014 and December 2019. A systematic and standardized identification of risk factors was performed. Intervention: As intervention, risk factors were treated or removed where possible. Patients with nonremovable risk factors were included in the control group. All patients were scheduled for follow-up visits every 6 mo. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The main outcome measures were the rate of symptomatic recurrences and improvement in questionnaire results from baseline to the end of the follow-up period. Reduction of antibiotic usage was regarded as a secondary outcome measure. Results and Limitations: Finally, 353 women were analyzed: 196 in the study group and 157 in the control group. At the end of the follow-up period, a statistically significant reduction in the symptomatic recurrence rate was found between the two groups (0.9 ± 0.2 and 2.6 ± 0.5; p < 0.001), as well as in quality of life and anxiety according to mean questionnaire results: quality of life (0.88 ± 0.06 and 0.63 ± 0.09; p < 0.001) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form Y (32.7 ± 9.3 and 47.5 ± 14.3; p < 0.001). The use of antibiotics was significantly lower in the study group: 4410 versus 9821 (p < 0.001). A limitation to consider is the lack of a randomized design for the active approach in the high-risk group. Conclusions: Identification, counseling, and removal of risk factors, where possible, are able to change the natural history of rUTI, by reducing the number of symptomatic episodes and antibiotic use and improving quality of life. Patient summary: In this report, we analyzed a large cohort of women affected by recurrent urinary tract infections and followed for a long time period. We found that risk factor identification and counseling may change the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections, concluding that this approach is able to reduce the number of symptomatic episodes, reduce antibiotic usage, and improve patients’ quality of life.

Management of Recurrent Cystitis in Women: When Prompt Identification of Risk Factors Might Make a Difference

Rizzo M.;Liguori G.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Management of recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) is still challenging. A better understanding of the natural history of rUTI could help us reduce antibiotic use and improve antibiotic stewardship. Objective: To describe the effect of risk identification, stratification, and counseling on the natural course of the disease in women with rUTI. Design, setting, and participants: A total of 373 women affected by recurrent cystitis were enrolled in this longitudinal cohort study between December 2014 and December 2019. A systematic and standardized identification of risk factors was performed. Intervention: As intervention, risk factors were treated or removed where possible. Patients with nonremovable risk factors were included in the control group. All patients were scheduled for follow-up visits every 6 mo. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The main outcome measures were the rate of symptomatic recurrences and improvement in questionnaire results from baseline to the end of the follow-up period. Reduction of antibiotic usage was regarded as a secondary outcome measure. Results and Limitations: Finally, 353 women were analyzed: 196 in the study group and 157 in the control group. At the end of the follow-up period, a statistically significant reduction in the symptomatic recurrence rate was found between the two groups (0.9 ± 0.2 and 2.6 ± 0.5; p < 0.001), as well as in quality of life and anxiety according to mean questionnaire results: quality of life (0.88 ± 0.06 and 0.63 ± 0.09; p < 0.001) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form Y (32.7 ± 9.3 and 47.5 ± 14.3; p < 0.001). The use of antibiotics was significantly lower in the study group: 4410 versus 9821 (p < 0.001). A limitation to consider is the lack of a randomized design for the active approach in the high-risk group. Conclusions: Identification, counseling, and removal of risk factors, where possible, are able to change the natural history of rUTI, by reducing the number of symptomatic episodes and antibiotic use and improving quality of life. Patient summary: In this report, we analyzed a large cohort of women affected by recurrent urinary tract infections and followed for a long time period. We found that risk factor identification and counseling may change the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections, concluding that this approach is able to reduce the number of symptomatic episodes, reduce antibiotic usage, and improve patients’ quality of life.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3009453
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