Palytoxin (PLTX) is a highly toxic polyether identified in various marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. In addition to adverse effects in humans, negative impacts on different marine organisms have been often described during Ostreopsis blooms and the concomitant presence of PLTX and its analogues. Considering the increasing frequency of Ostreopsis blooms due to global warming, PLTX was investigated for its effects on Artemia franciscana, a crustacean commonly used as a model organism for ecotoxicological studies. At concentrations comparable to those detected in culture media of O. cf. ovata (1.0–10.0 nM), PLTX significantly reduced cysts hatching and induced significant mortality of the organisms, both at larval and adult stages. Adults appeared to be the most sensitive developmental stage to PLTX: significant mortality was recorded after only 12 h of exposure to PLTX concentrations >1.0 nM, with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.3 nM (95% confidence interval = 1.2–4.7 nM). The toxic effects of PLTX toward A. franciscana adults seem to involve oxidative stress induction. Indeed, the toxin significantly increased ROS levels and altered the activity of the major antioxidant enzymes, in particular catalase and peroxidase, and marginally glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase. On the whole, these results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of PLTX could have a negative effect on Artemia franciscana population, suggesting its potential ecotoxicological impact at the marine level.

Ecotoxicological Impact of the Marine Toxin Palytoxin on the Micro-Crustacean Artemia franciscana

Cavion F.;Pelin M.
;
Ponti C.;Della Loggia R.;Tubaro A.;Sosa S.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Palytoxin (PLTX) is a highly toxic polyether identified in various marine organisms, such as Palythoa soft corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. In addition to adverse effects in humans, negative impacts on different marine organisms have been often described during Ostreopsis blooms and the concomitant presence of PLTX and its analogues. Considering the increasing frequency of Ostreopsis blooms due to global warming, PLTX was investigated for its effects on Artemia franciscana, a crustacean commonly used as a model organism for ecotoxicological studies. At concentrations comparable to those detected in culture media of O. cf. ovata (1.0–10.0 nM), PLTX significantly reduced cysts hatching and induced significant mortality of the organisms, both at larval and adult stages. Adults appeared to be the most sensitive developmental stage to PLTX: significant mortality was recorded after only 12 h of exposure to PLTX concentrations >1.0 nM, with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.3 nM (95% confidence interval = 1.2–4.7 nM). The toxic effects of PLTX toward A. franciscana adults seem to involve oxidative stress induction. Indeed, the toxin significantly increased ROS levels and altered the activity of the major antioxidant enzymes, in particular catalase and peroxidase, and marginally glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase. On the whole, these results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of PLTX could have a negative effect on Artemia franciscana population, suggesting its potential ecotoxicological impact at the marine level.
2022
18-gen-2022
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https://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/20/2/81
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3009479
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