Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is an inherited heart muscle disorder characterized by progressive replacement of cardiomyocytes by fibrofatty tissue, ventricular dilatation, cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Interest in molecular biomechanics for these disorders is constantly growing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a well stablished technic to study the mechanobiology of biological samples under physiological and pathological conditions at the cellular scale. However, a review which described all the different data that can be ob-tained using the AFM (cell elasticity, adhesion behavior, viscoelasticity, beating force and fre-quency) is still missing. In this review, we will discuss several techniques that highlight the poten-tial of AFM to be used as a tool for assessing the biomechanics involved in ACM. Indeed, analysis of genetically mutated cells with AFM reveal abnormalities of the cytoskeleton, cell membrane structures and defects of contractility. The higher the Young’s modulus, the stiffer the cell, and it is well known that abnormal tissue stiffness is symptomatic of a range of diseases. The cell beating force and frequency provide information during the depolarization and repolarization phases, complementary to cell electrophysiology (calcium imaging, MEA, patch clamp). In addition, original data is also presented to emphasize the unique potential of AFM as a tool to assess fibro-sis in cardiac tissue.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applications in arrhythmo-genic cardiomyopathy

Luisa Mestroni
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Orfeo Sbaizero
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2022-01-01

Abstract

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is an inherited heart muscle disorder characterized by progressive replacement of cardiomyocytes by fibrofatty tissue, ventricular dilatation, cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Interest in molecular biomechanics for these disorders is constantly growing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a well stablished technic to study the mechanobiology of biological samples under physiological and pathological conditions at the cellular scale. However, a review which described all the different data that can be ob-tained using the AFM (cell elasticity, adhesion behavior, viscoelasticity, beating force and fre-quency) is still missing. In this review, we will discuss several techniques that highlight the poten-tial of AFM to be used as a tool for assessing the biomechanics involved in ACM. Indeed, analysis of genetically mutated cells with AFM reveal abnormalities of the cytoskeleton, cell membrane structures and defects of contractility. The higher the Young’s modulus, the stiffer the cell, and it is well known that abnormal tissue stiffness is symptomatic of a range of diseases. The cell beating force and frequency provide information during the depolarization and repolarization phases, complementary to cell electrophysiology (calcium imaging, MEA, patch clamp). In addition, original data is also presented to emphasize the unique potential of AFM as a tool to assess fibro-sis in cardiac tissue.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3015157
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