Introduction: Early introduction oral immunotherapy (E-OIT) in the first year of life can be a safe treatment for infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). Once the protocol is completed, doubts remain whether children achieve tolerance or remain desensitized. According to current guidelines, this is determined by an avoidance period followed by a re-exposure to the food allergen during an in-hospital oral food challenge (OFC). In real life, this approach can be complicated, time-consuming, and anxiety-provoking for parents. We assessed the long-term safety of E-OIT for CMA in a cohort of children who switched to an unrestricted diet without testing the achievement of tolerance at the end of the OIT protocol. Materials and Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis of the clinical follow-up of a cohort of children diagnosed with IgE-mediated CMA and undergoing E-OIT protocol in their first year of life. In a previous publication, the same cohort of patients had been studied to assess the feasibility of E-OIT for CMA. In the present study, we reported the results of a telephone survey, carried out through a questionnaire to their families enquiring about milk consumption and other ongoing atopic conditions of children. Results: After an average of 4 years from the start of E-OIT, 62/73 patients (85% of the historical cohort) participated in the survey. Among them, all 56 patients who had previously successfully completed the protocol reported an unrestricted cow's milk intake. Ninety–three percent of these children did not experience any further allergic reactions, while the remaining 7% described only mild and transitory reactions until the 6-month period after the end of the protocol. Conclusions: This study confirmed the long-term safety of E-OIT for CMA and challenged the paradigm of the need for allergen food withdrawal to discern between desensitization and tolerance. It could be a starting point for planning future trials on this issue.

Early introduction oral immunotherapy for IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy: A follow-up study confirms this approach as safe and appealing to parents

Levantino L.
;
Barbi E.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: Early introduction oral immunotherapy (E-OIT) in the first year of life can be a safe treatment for infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). Once the protocol is completed, doubts remain whether children achieve tolerance or remain desensitized. According to current guidelines, this is determined by an avoidance period followed by a re-exposure to the food allergen during an in-hospital oral food challenge (OFC). In real life, this approach can be complicated, time-consuming, and anxiety-provoking for parents. We assessed the long-term safety of E-OIT for CMA in a cohort of children who switched to an unrestricted diet without testing the achievement of tolerance at the end of the OIT protocol. Materials and Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis of the clinical follow-up of a cohort of children diagnosed with IgE-mediated CMA and undergoing E-OIT protocol in their first year of life. In a previous publication, the same cohort of patients had been studied to assess the feasibility of E-OIT for CMA. In the present study, we reported the results of a telephone survey, carried out through a questionnaire to their families enquiring about milk consumption and other ongoing atopic conditions of children. Results: After an average of 4 years from the start of E-OIT, 62/73 patients (85% of the historical cohort) participated in the survey. Among them, all 56 patients who had previously successfully completed the protocol reported an unrestricted cow's milk intake. Ninety–three percent of these children did not experience any further allergic reactions, while the remaining 7% described only mild and transitory reactions until the 6-month period after the end of the protocol. Conclusions: This study confirmed the long-term safety of E-OIT for CMA and challenged the paradigm of the need for allergen food withdrawal to discern between desensitization and tolerance. It could be a starting point for planning future trials on this issue.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3025865
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