Palytoxin (PLTX) and its analogues are marine polyethers identified in Palythoa and Zoanthus corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Humans can be exposed to these toxins by different routes with a series of adverse effects but the most severe risk is associated with poisonings by the consumption of edible marine organisms accumulating these toxins, as occurs in (sub)-tropical areas. In temperate areas, adverse effects ascribed to PLTXs have been recorded after inhalation of marine aerosols and/or cutaneous contact with seawater during Ostreopsis blooms, as well as during cleaning procedures of Palythoa-containing home aquaria. Besides instrumental analytical methods, in the last years a series of alternative or complementary methods based on biological/biochemical tools have been developed for the rapid and specific PLTX detection required for risk assessment. These methods are usually sensitive, cost- and time-effective, and do not require highly specialized operators. Among them, structural immunoassays and functional cellbased assays are reviewed. The availability of specific anti-PLTX antibodies allowed the development of different sensitive structural assays, suitable for its detection also in complex matrices, such as mussels. In addition, knowing the mechanism of PLTX action, a series of functional identification methods has been developed. Despite some of them being limited by matrix effects and specificity issues, biological methods for PLTX detection represent a feasible tool, suitable for rapid screening.

Functional and Structural Biological Methods for Palytoxin Detection

Carlin M.;Pelin M.;Ponti C.;Sosa S.;Tubaro A.
2022

Abstract

Palytoxin (PLTX) and its analogues are marine polyethers identified in Palythoa and Zoanthus corals, Ostreopsis dinoflagellates, and Trichodesmium cyanobacteria. Humans can be exposed to these toxins by different routes with a series of adverse effects but the most severe risk is associated with poisonings by the consumption of edible marine organisms accumulating these toxins, as occurs in (sub)-tropical areas. In temperate areas, adverse effects ascribed to PLTXs have been recorded after inhalation of marine aerosols and/or cutaneous contact with seawater during Ostreopsis blooms, as well as during cleaning procedures of Palythoa-containing home aquaria. Besides instrumental analytical methods, in the last years a series of alternative or complementary methods based on biological/biochemical tools have been developed for the rapid and specific PLTX detection required for risk assessment. These methods are usually sensitive, cost- and time-effective, and do not require highly specialized operators. Among them, structural immunoassays and functional cellbased assays are reviewed. The availability of specific anti-PLTX antibodies allowed the development of different sensitive structural assays, suitable for its detection also in complex matrices, such as mussels. In addition, knowing the mechanism of PLTX action, a series of functional identification methods has been developed. Despite some of them being limited by matrix effects and specificity issues, biological methods for PLTX detection represent a feasible tool, suitable for rapid screening.
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https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1312/10/7/916
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3026196
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