Sex differences play a relevant role in cancer susceptibility, incidence and survival. Exploring such differences is difficult because of the close interplay of genetic, epigenetic and hormonal factors. However, a better understanding of the role of such disparities in cancer mechanisms could improve its prevention and therapy. Our study explores how sex differences in pediatric outcomes vary after undergoing first and advanced-line therapy for hematological malignancies. The primary goal was to evaluate if sex differences in pediatric outcomes after first-line therapy persist after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The secondary goal was to analyze sex differences in disease risk at onset and pediatric outcomes after first-line therapy to compare our results with the literature's reported results. Among a total of 485 patients (280 males, 205 females) admitted for hematological malignancies, disease risk at the onset was significantly higher in males (P < .05). One hundred and seventy-four patients (111 males and 63 females) had a high-risk disease requiring HSCT. Before HSCT, all patients underwent myeloablative conditioning, which substantially impaired gonadal function. Although the number of boys undergoing HSCT was almost double that of girls, there were no sex-related differences in overall survival, cancer relapse and complications after HSCT exposure (P > .05). These findings suggest that the existing sex differences in cancer risk ab initio can be somehow flattened by a conditioning regimen, shedding new light on the role of hormonal factors in cancer mechanism and management.

Pediatric males receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant lose their male disadvantage in disease risk after the procedure: A retrospective observational study

De Nardi, Laura
;
Simeone, Roberto;Torelli, Lucio;Maestro, Alessandra;Zanon, Davide;Barbi, Egidio;Maximova, Natalia
2022

Abstract

Sex differences play a relevant role in cancer susceptibility, incidence and survival. Exploring such differences is difficult because of the close interplay of genetic, epigenetic and hormonal factors. However, a better understanding of the role of such disparities in cancer mechanisms could improve its prevention and therapy. Our study explores how sex differences in pediatric outcomes vary after undergoing first and advanced-line therapy for hematological malignancies. The primary goal was to evaluate if sex differences in pediatric outcomes after first-line therapy persist after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The secondary goal was to analyze sex differences in disease risk at onset and pediatric outcomes after first-line therapy to compare our results with the literature's reported results. Among a total of 485 patients (280 males, 205 females) admitted for hematological malignancies, disease risk at the onset was significantly higher in males (P < .05). One hundred and seventy-four patients (111 males and 63 females) had a high-risk disease requiring HSCT. Before HSCT, all patients underwent myeloablative conditioning, which substantially impaired gonadal function. Although the number of boys undergoing HSCT was almost double that of girls, there were no sex-related differences in overall survival, cancer relapse and complications after HSCT exposure (P > .05). These findings suggest that the existing sex differences in cancer risk ab initio can be somehow flattened by a conditioning regimen, shedding new light on the role of hormonal factors in cancer mechanism and management.
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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.33978
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3026497
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