More and more findings suggest that neurological disorders could have an immunopathological cause. Thus, immune-targeted therapies are increasingly proposed in neurology (even if often controversial), as anakinra, inhibiting IL-1 for febrile inflammatory illnesses, and JAK inhibitors for anti-interferons treatment. Precision medicine in neurology could be fostered by a better understanding of the disease machinery, to develop a rational use of immuno-modulators in clinical trials. In this review, we focus on monogenic disorders with neurological hyper-inflammation/autoimmunity as simplified "models" to correlate immune pathology and targeted treatments. The study of monogenic models yields great advantages for the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms that can be reproduced in cellular/animal models, overcoming the limitations of biological samples to study. Moreover, monogenic disorders provide a unique tool to study the mechanisms of neuroinflammatory and autoimmune brain damage, in all their manifestations. The insight of clinical, pathological, and therapeutic aspects of the considered monogenic models can impact knowledge about brain inflammation and can provide useful hints to better understand and cure some neurologic multifactorial disorders.

Vasculitis, Autoimmunity, and Cytokines: How the Immune System Can Harm the Brain

Tesser, Alessandra;Pin, Alessia
;
Tommasini, Alberto
2021

Abstract

More and more findings suggest that neurological disorders could have an immunopathological cause. Thus, immune-targeted therapies are increasingly proposed in neurology (even if often controversial), as anakinra, inhibiting IL-1 for febrile inflammatory illnesses, and JAK inhibitors for anti-interferons treatment. Precision medicine in neurology could be fostered by a better understanding of the disease machinery, to develop a rational use of immuno-modulators in clinical trials. In this review, we focus on monogenic disorders with neurological hyper-inflammation/autoimmunity as simplified "models" to correlate immune pathology and targeted treatments. The study of monogenic models yields great advantages for the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms that can be reproduced in cellular/animal models, overcoming the limitations of biological samples to study. Moreover, monogenic disorders provide a unique tool to study the mechanisms of neuroinflammatory and autoimmune brain damage, in all their manifestations. The insight of clinical, pathological, and therapeutic aspects of the considered monogenic models can impact knowledge about brain inflammation and can provide useful hints to better understand and cure some neurologic multifactorial disorders.
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https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/11/5585
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197198/
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/3027405
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