Carnobacteria are common bacteria in cold and temperate environments; they are also reported during fsh mortality events. In a previous study, carnobacteria were isolated from the eyes of healthy wild salmonids from a high-mountain lake. To better understand these fndings, salmonids were captured from three high-mountain lakes (Lower and Upper Balma Lake, Rouen Lake; northwest Italy) during August 2019 and subjected to bacteriological and histological examination. Although all were healthy, 8.7% (Lower Balma Lake), 24% (Upper Balma Lake), and 32.6% (Rouen Lake) were positive for carnobacteria colonization of the eyes. A Trojan-horse efect was hypothesized to explain carnobacteria isolation in the eye. This immune-escaping macrophage-mediated mechanism has been identifed in other Gram-positive bacteria. Biochemical, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis were carried out on isolated bacteria (Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and C. divergens). Based on previous references for carnobacteria isolated from fsh, C. maltaromaticum strains were tested for the pisA precursor gene of the bacteriocin piscicolin 126. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains were found to display genotypic heterogeneity and a low percentage of pisA positive amplifcation. Features of geomorphology, geographic isolation, and microbiota common to the three lakes are thought to be possibly related to our fndings. Moreover, terrestrial insects collected from the lake shoreline and the stomach contents were screened for the presence of carnobacteria. The salmonids in these high-mountain environments feed mainly on terrestrial insects, which are considered possible vectors for carnobacteria that might catabolize the exoskeleton chitin. All insects tested negative for carnobacteria, but as a small number of samples were analyzed, their role as possible vectors of infection cannot be excluded. Further studies are needed to corroborate our research hypothesis.

The unusual isolation of carnobacteria in eyes of healthy salmonids in high‑mountain lakes

Pizzul E.
Investigation
;
Bertoli M.
Investigation
;
2021

Abstract

Carnobacteria are common bacteria in cold and temperate environments; they are also reported during fsh mortality events. In a previous study, carnobacteria were isolated from the eyes of healthy wild salmonids from a high-mountain lake. To better understand these fndings, salmonids were captured from three high-mountain lakes (Lower and Upper Balma Lake, Rouen Lake; northwest Italy) during August 2019 and subjected to bacteriological and histological examination. Although all were healthy, 8.7% (Lower Balma Lake), 24% (Upper Balma Lake), and 32.6% (Rouen Lake) were positive for carnobacteria colonization of the eyes. A Trojan-horse efect was hypothesized to explain carnobacteria isolation in the eye. This immune-escaping macrophage-mediated mechanism has been identifed in other Gram-positive bacteria. Biochemical, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis were carried out on isolated bacteria (Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and C. divergens). Based on previous references for carnobacteria isolated from fsh, C. maltaromaticum strains were tested for the pisA precursor gene of the bacteriocin piscicolin 126. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains were found to display genotypic heterogeneity and a low percentage of pisA positive amplifcation. Features of geomorphology, geographic isolation, and microbiota common to the three lakes are thought to be possibly related to our fndings. Moreover, terrestrial insects collected from the lake shoreline and the stomach contents were screened for the presence of carnobacteria. The salmonids in these high-mountain environments feed mainly on terrestrial insects, which are considered possible vectors for carnobacteria that might catabolize the exoskeleton chitin. All insects tested negative for carnobacteria, but as a small number of samples were analyzed, their role as possible vectors of infection cannot be excluded. Further studies are needed to corroborate our research hypothesis.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-82133-3
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/3028267
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