The scientific community, recently, has focused notable attention on the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of dietary polyphenols for human health. Emerging evidence demonstrates that polyphenols, flavonoids and vitamins counteract and neutralize genetic and environmental stressors, particularly oxidative stress and inflammatory process closely connected to cancer initiation, promotion and progression. Interestingly, polyphenols can exert antioxidant or pro-oxidant cytotoxic effects depending on their endogenous concentration. Notably, polyphenols at high dose act as pro-oxidants in a wide type of cancer cells by inhibiting Nrf2 pathway and the expression of antioxidant vitagenes, such as NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), glutathione transferase (GT), GPx, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) and thioredoxin (Trx) system which play an essential role in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), detoxification of xenobiotics and inhibition of cancer progression, by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest according to the hormesis approach. Importantly, mutagenesis of Nrf2 pathway can exacerbate its "dark side" role, representing a crucial event in the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. Herein, we review the hormetic effects of polyphenols and nanoincapsulated-polyphenols in chemoprevention and treatment of brain tumors via activation or inhibition of Nrf2/vitagenes to suppress carcinogenesis in the early stages, and thus inhibit its progression. Lastly, we discuss innovative preclinical approaches through mini-brain tumor organoids to study human carcinogenesis, from basic cancer research to clinical practice, as promising tools to recapitulate the arrangement of structural neuronal tissues and biological functions of the human brain, as well as test drug toxicity and drive personalized and precision medicine in brain cancer.

Redox modulation by plant polyphenols targeting vitagenes for chemoprevention and therapy: Relevance to novel anti-cancer interventions and mini-brain organoid technology

Canzonieri, Vincenzo;
2022

Abstract

The scientific community, recently, has focused notable attention on the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of dietary polyphenols for human health. Emerging evidence demonstrates that polyphenols, flavonoids and vitamins counteract and neutralize genetic and environmental stressors, particularly oxidative stress and inflammatory process closely connected to cancer initiation, promotion and progression. Interestingly, polyphenols can exert antioxidant or pro-oxidant cytotoxic effects depending on their endogenous concentration. Notably, polyphenols at high dose act as pro-oxidants in a wide type of cancer cells by inhibiting Nrf2 pathway and the expression of antioxidant vitagenes, such as NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), glutathione transferase (GT), GPx, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) and thioredoxin (Trx) system which play an essential role in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), detoxification of xenobiotics and inhibition of cancer progression, by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest according to the hormesis approach. Importantly, mutagenesis of Nrf2 pathway can exacerbate its "dark side" role, representing a crucial event in the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. Herein, we review the hormetic effects of polyphenols and nanoincapsulated-polyphenols in chemoprevention and treatment of brain tumors via activation or inhibition of Nrf2/vitagenes to suppress carcinogenesis in the early stages, and thus inhibit its progression. Lastly, we discuss innovative preclinical approaches through mini-brain tumor organoids to study human carcinogenesis, from basic cancer research to clinical practice, as promising tools to recapitulate the arrangement of structural neuronal tissues and biological functions of the human brain, as well as test drug toxicity and drive personalized and precision medicine in brain cancer.
18-dic-2021
Pubblicato
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584921011199
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11368/3028353
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