Plant extract and essential oils are gaining application in aquaculture, but data about their environmental impact are limited and their potential effects on aquatic organisms are largely unknown. For this study, ecotoxicity tests were performed under standardized conditions on fish feed supplemented with 3 % w/w of a basil supercritical extract (F1-BEO; substance A), F1-BEO extract (substance B), and fish feed without F1-BEO extract (substance C) on three model species of different trophic levels (bacteria, primary producer, primary consumer) considered representative for freshwater (Aliivibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna) and marine (A. fischeri, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Paracentrotus lividus) ecosystems. Ecotoxicological response was largely comparable within the same trophic level (whichever the ecosystem). EC50 was not calculable in the concentration range here tested (3.9–500 mg/L) for freshwater and marine microalgae, suggesting that none of the substances were toxic for primary producers. Reduction of A. fischeri bioluminescence at the tested concentration (0.5–10 mg/L) was observed only for substance A (EC50 9.53 mg/L and 9 mg/L for freshwater and marine ecosystems, respectively). Notably, in P. lividus embryotoxicity was higher for substances A (EC50 1.80 mg/L) and C (EC50 4.6 mg/L) than for substance B (EC50 7.10 mg/L), suggesting a toxic effect due to feed dissolution. In contrast, substance B was more toxic (EC50 0.34 mg/L) in D. magna than substances A (EC50 3.98 mg/L) and C (EC50 5.50 mg/L). Based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, all substances were categorized Acute 2, except for substance A which was categorized Acute 1 for D. magna. Overall, the substances were found to be potentially toxic for an aquatic ecosystem, especially for primary consumer. Further study of plant extract and essential oils is needed to better understand their effects and fate on the aquatic environment.

Ecotoxicity of basil (Ocimum Basilicum) extract in aquaculture feeds: Is it really eco-safe for the aquatic environment?

Pastorino P.
;
Provenza F.;Renzi M.
2022

Abstract

Plant extract and essential oils are gaining application in aquaculture, but data about their environmental impact are limited and their potential effects on aquatic organisms are largely unknown. For this study, ecotoxicity tests were performed under standardized conditions on fish feed supplemented with 3 % w/w of a basil supercritical extract (F1-BEO; substance A), F1-BEO extract (substance B), and fish feed without F1-BEO extract (substance C) on three model species of different trophic levels (bacteria, primary producer, primary consumer) considered representative for freshwater (Aliivibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna) and marine (A. fischeri, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Paracentrotus lividus) ecosystems. Ecotoxicological response was largely comparable within the same trophic level (whichever the ecosystem). EC50 was not calculable in the concentration range here tested (3.9–500 mg/L) for freshwater and marine microalgae, suggesting that none of the substances were toxic for primary producers. Reduction of A. fischeri bioluminescence at the tested concentration (0.5–10 mg/L) was observed only for substance A (EC50 9.53 mg/L and 9 mg/L for freshwater and marine ecosystems, respectively). Notably, in P. lividus embryotoxicity was higher for substances A (EC50 1.80 mg/L) and C (EC50 4.6 mg/L) than for substance B (EC50 7.10 mg/L), suggesting a toxic effect due to feed dissolution. In contrast, substance B was more toxic (EC50 0.34 mg/L) in D. magna than substances A (EC50 3.98 mg/L) and C (EC50 5.50 mg/L). Based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, all substances were categorized Acute 2, except for substance A which was categorized Acute 1 for D. magna. Overall, the substances were found to be potentially toxic for an aquatic ecosystem, especially for primary consumer. Further study of plant extract and essential oils is needed to better understand their effects and fate on the aquatic environment.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X22006458
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3028991
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