Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is increasingly diagnosed due to the advancements made in diagnostics and therapeutics in the last decades, particularly in the field of transthyretin-related CA. Studies that have used bone scintigraphy for screening at-risk conditions have shown that about one out of ten patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), aortic stenosis undergoing valve replacement, or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) diagnosed later in life might have an underlying or concomitant CA. At the same time, the epidemiology of these conditions is also rapidly evolving. HFpEF has become the leading form of heart failure, and HFpEF patients are increasingly cared for in non-cardiology settings due to their older age and substantial burden of comorbidities. Aortic stenosis is increasingly treated percutaneously at earlier stages of the disease, determining a significant gain in survival. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is nowadays mostly diagnosed in middle-aged adults with near-normal life expectancy, with a greater chance of misdiagnosing CA as HCM or of an overlap between the two conditions. In all these contexts, the therapeutic and prognostic implications of diagnosing CA will have to be further investigated. Meanwhile, the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected CA should always be completed with the systematic exclusion of a plasma cell dyscrasia, the acquisition of tomographic imaging at bone scintigraphy, and the completion of genetic testing for transthyretin-related forms.

Cardiac amyloidosis: a changing epidemiology with open challenges

Aldostefano Porcari;Marco Merlo;
2022

Abstract

Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is increasingly diagnosed due to the advancements made in diagnostics and therapeutics in the last decades, particularly in the field of transthyretin-related CA. Studies that have used bone scintigraphy for screening at-risk conditions have shown that about one out of ten patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), aortic stenosis undergoing valve replacement, or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) diagnosed later in life might have an underlying or concomitant CA. At the same time, the epidemiology of these conditions is also rapidly evolving. HFpEF has become the leading form of heart failure, and HFpEF patients are increasingly cared for in non-cardiology settings due to their older age and substantial burden of comorbidities. Aortic stenosis is increasingly treated percutaneously at earlier stages of the disease, determining a significant gain in survival. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is nowadays mostly diagnosed in middle-aged adults with near-normal life expectancy, with a greater chance of misdiagnosing CA as HCM or of an overlap between the two conditions. In all these contexts, the therapeutic and prognostic implications of diagnosing CA will have to be further investigated. Meanwhile, the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected CA should always be completed with the systematic exclusion of a plasma cell dyscrasia, the acquisition of tomographic imaging at bone scintigraphy, and the completion of genetic testing for transthyretin-related forms.
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https://vpjournal.net/article/view/4651
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3030482
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