Simple Summary In this manuscript, we offer an integrated molecular analysis of 44 combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (CoLCNECs) in order to deepen the knowledge about these rare histotypes and to clarify their relationship with lung cancers. In the present state of research, molecular studies are still scant, consisting of small and heterogeneous cohorts, and the genomic landscape is poorly characterized. This study shows that CoLCNECs constitute a standalone group of neuroendocrine neoplasm, with three different molecular profiles, two of which overlap with pure LCNEC or adenocarcinoma. CoLCNECs can be considered an independent histologic category with specific genomic and transcriptomic features, different and therefore not comparable to other lung cancers. Indeed, in addition to a histological re-evaluation of lung cancer classification, our study may help to develop a new diagnostic approach for novel and personalized treatments in CoLCNECs. Background: Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (CoLCNEC) is given by the association of LCNEC with adeno or squamous or any non-neuroendocrine carcinoma. Molecular bases of CoLCNEC pathogenesis are scant and no standardized therapies are defined. Methods: 44 CoLCNECs: 26 with adenocarcinoma (CoADC), 7 with squamous cell carcinoma (CoSQC), 3 with small cell carcinoma (CoSCLC), 4 with atypical carcinoid (CoAC) and 4 napsin-A positive LCNEC (NapA+), were assessed for alterations in 409 genes and transcriptomic profiling of 20,815 genes. Results: Genes altered included TP53 (n = 30), RB1 (n = 14) and KRAS (n = 13). Targetable alterations included six KRAS G12C mutations and ALK-EML4 fusion gene. Comparison of CoLCNEC transcriptomes with 86 lung cancers of pure histology (8 AC, 19 ADC, 19 LCNEC, 11 SCLC and 29 SQC) identified CoLCNEC as a separate entity of neuroendocrine tumours with three different molecular profiles, two of which showed a non-neuroendocrine lineage. Hypomethylation, activation of MAPK signalling and association to immunotherapy signature specifically characterized each of three CoLCNEC molecular clusters. Prognostic stratification was also provided. Conclusions: CoLCNECs are an independent histologic category. Our findings support the extension of routine evaluation of KRAS mutations, fusion genes and immune-related markers to offer new perspectives in the therapeutic management of CoLCNEC.

Combined Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinomas of the Lung: Integrative Molecular Analysis Identifies Subtypes with Potential Therapeutic Implications

Mangogna A.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2022

Abstract

Simple Summary In this manuscript, we offer an integrated molecular analysis of 44 combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (CoLCNECs) in order to deepen the knowledge about these rare histotypes and to clarify their relationship with lung cancers. In the present state of research, molecular studies are still scant, consisting of small and heterogeneous cohorts, and the genomic landscape is poorly characterized. This study shows that CoLCNECs constitute a standalone group of neuroendocrine neoplasm, with three different molecular profiles, two of which overlap with pure LCNEC or adenocarcinoma. CoLCNECs can be considered an independent histologic category with specific genomic and transcriptomic features, different and therefore not comparable to other lung cancers. Indeed, in addition to a histological re-evaluation of lung cancer classification, our study may help to develop a new diagnostic approach for novel and personalized treatments in CoLCNECs. Background: Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (CoLCNEC) is given by the association of LCNEC with adeno or squamous or any non-neuroendocrine carcinoma. Molecular bases of CoLCNEC pathogenesis are scant and no standardized therapies are defined. Methods: 44 CoLCNECs: 26 with adenocarcinoma (CoADC), 7 with squamous cell carcinoma (CoSQC), 3 with small cell carcinoma (CoSCLC), 4 with atypical carcinoid (CoAC) and 4 napsin-A positive LCNEC (NapA+), were assessed for alterations in 409 genes and transcriptomic profiling of 20,815 genes. Results: Genes altered included TP53 (n = 30), RB1 (n = 14) and KRAS (n = 13). Targetable alterations included six KRAS G12C mutations and ALK-EML4 fusion gene. Comparison of CoLCNEC transcriptomes with 86 lung cancers of pure histology (8 AC, 19 ADC, 19 LCNEC, 11 SCLC and 29 SQC) identified CoLCNEC as a separate entity of neuroendocrine tumours with three different molecular profiles, two of which showed a non-neuroendocrine lineage. Hypomethylation, activation of MAPK signalling and association to immunotherapy signature specifically characterized each of three CoLCNEC molecular clusters. Prognostic stratification was also provided. Conclusions: CoLCNECs are an independent histologic category. Our findings support the extension of routine evaluation of KRAS mutations, fusion genes and immune-related markers to offer new perspectives in the therapeutic management of CoLCNEC.
24-set-2022
Pubblicato
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/14/19/4653
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9562868/
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3032638
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