Background: Over the years, forensic pathology has registered the spread of new methods of suicide, such as the ingestion of sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite causes increased methemoglobin, resulting in systemic hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, and cyanosis. Since sodium nitrite is a preservative, the ingestion of foods containing an excessive amount of this substance can also cause acute intoxication up to death. The present review is aimed at guiding health professionals in the identification and management of sodium-nitrite-related intoxications and deaths. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out on PubMed by following the PRISMA statement’s criteria. A total of 35 studies with 132 cases were enrolled, and the data were cataloged in Microsoft Excel. To establish the causal correlation between sodium nitrite ingestion and death, the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale was used. Results: In addition to the small number of cases that have currently been published, the study demonstrated that there was a general methodological discrepancy in the diagnostic process. However, some interesting results have emerged, especially in post-mortem diagnostics. Conclusion: Sodium-nitrite-related deaths represent a challenge for forensic pathologists; therefore, it is important to promptly recognize the essential features and perform the necessary and unrepeatable examinations for the correct diagnosis of the cause of death.

Sodium Nitrite Intoxication and Death: Summarizing Evidence to Facilitate Diagnosis

D’Errico, Stefano
Visualization
;
Concato, Monica
Data Curation
;
2022

Abstract

Background: Over the years, forensic pathology has registered the spread of new methods of suicide, such as the ingestion of sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite causes increased methemoglobin, resulting in systemic hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, and cyanosis. Since sodium nitrite is a preservative, the ingestion of foods containing an excessive amount of this substance can also cause acute intoxication up to death. The present review is aimed at guiding health professionals in the identification and management of sodium-nitrite-related intoxications and deaths. Methods: A systematic literature search was carried out on PubMed by following the PRISMA statement’s criteria. A total of 35 studies with 132 cases were enrolled, and the data were cataloged in Microsoft Excel. To establish the causal correlation between sodium nitrite ingestion and death, the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale was used. Results: In addition to the small number of cases that have currently been published, the study demonstrated that there was a general methodological discrepancy in the diagnostic process. However, some interesting results have emerged, especially in post-mortem diagnostics. Conclusion: Sodium-nitrite-related deaths represent a challenge for forensic pathologists; therefore, it is important to promptly recognize the essential features and perform the necessary and unrepeatable examinations for the correct diagnosis of the cause of death.
27-ott-2022
Pubblicato
https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/19/21/13996
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Nitrate intoxication.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Documento in Versione Editoriale
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 2.27 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.27 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3032678
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact