Recently, technological innovations have radically changed diabetes care. Insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring systems have significantly improved diabetes outcomes in both children and adults with Type 1 diabetes. For this reason, the major international associations recommend the use of technology in the management of Type 1 diabetes. The limitations of glycemic self-monitoring have prompted research to develop alternative techniques, favouring the expansion of continuous blood glucose monitoring systems (CGMs). CGM measures interstitial glucose through tiny sensors inserted in the subcutaneous tissue. Sensors can provide information in real time on the current glucose level and its trend. These data can be uploaded to the cloud and checked any time by doctors, patients and their caregivers. CGM can be combined with multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). With CSII, basal insulin is supplied in the form of a continuous infusion and pre-meal bolus doses are calculated based on the meals’ carbohydrate content. A variety of insulin pumps is available, some of which can communicate with specific CGM devices, helping the patient to make better decisions about insulin dosing. This approach is known as sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy and it is the gold standard for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes in children and young adults, as recommended by the Italian Association of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology. In the most recent systems, basal insulin delivery can be automatically modified through algorithms, based on CGM results, target glucose and the amount of active insulin, even though the patients still have to set the pre-meal insulin bolus manually. This system is defined as a partially hybrid closed-loop system, also known as artificial pancreas. Compared to MDI, CSII is associated with better control of blood glucose - measured by haemoglobin A1c and glycemic variability -, reduction of daily insulin requirement and an improvement of the quality of life. Psychophysical disabilities, language barriers or socio-economic disadvantage should not be considered limitations of CSII treatment as long as the caregiver is able to manage the therapy. Nowadays, MDI is recommended as first line therapy exclusively for those patients who do not want to use insulin pumps due to physical discomfort. The aim of this article is to provide updated information on the management of paediatric diabetes with modern technological devices for glucose monitoring and insulin delivery.

Diabete hi-tech

D'Agostin, martina
;
Tumminelli, Cristina;Grigoletto, Veronica;Tornese, Gianluca;Barbi, Egidio;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Recently, technological innovations have radically changed diabetes care. Insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitoring systems have significantly improved diabetes outcomes in both children and adults with Type 1 diabetes. For this reason, the major international associations recommend the use of technology in the management of Type 1 diabetes. The limitations of glycemic self-monitoring have prompted research to develop alternative techniques, favouring the expansion of continuous blood glucose monitoring systems (CGMs). CGM measures interstitial glucose through tiny sensors inserted in the subcutaneous tissue. Sensors can provide information in real time on the current glucose level and its trend. These data can be uploaded to the cloud and checked any time by doctors, patients and their caregivers. CGM can be combined with multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). With CSII, basal insulin is supplied in the form of a continuous infusion and pre-meal bolus doses are calculated based on the meals’ carbohydrate content. A variety of insulin pumps is available, some of which can communicate with specific CGM devices, helping the patient to make better decisions about insulin dosing. This approach is known as sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy and it is the gold standard for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes in children and young adults, as recommended by the Italian Association of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology. In the most recent systems, basal insulin delivery can be automatically modified through algorithms, based on CGM results, target glucose and the amount of active insulin, even though the patients still have to set the pre-meal insulin bolus manually. This system is defined as a partially hybrid closed-loop system, also known as artificial pancreas. Compared to MDI, CSII is associated with better control of blood glucose - measured by haemoglobin A1c and glycemic variability -, reduction of daily insulin requirement and an improvement of the quality of life. Psychophysical disabilities, language barriers or socio-economic disadvantage should not be considered limitations of CSII treatment as long as the caregiver is able to manage the therapy. Nowadays, MDI is recommended as first line therapy exclusively for those patients who do not want to use insulin pumps due to physical discomfort. The aim of this article is to provide updated information on the management of paediatric diabetes with modern technological devices for glucose monitoring and insulin delivery.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3033121
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