Mesenchymal cells in the lung are crucial during development, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common and deadly form of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases. Originally thought to behave as supporting cells for the lung epithelium and endothelium with a singular function of producing basement membrane, mesenchymal cells encompass a variety of cell types, including resident fibroblasts, lipofibroblasts, myofibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and pericytes, which all occupy different anatomic locations and exhibit diverse homeostatic functions in the lung. During injury, each of these subtypes demonstrate remarkable plasticity and undergo varying capacity to proliferate and differentiate into activated myofibroblasts. Therefore, these cells secrete high levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to tissue repair, or in pathologic situations, scarring and fibrosis. Whereas epithelial damage is considered the initial trigger that leads to lung injury, lung mesenchymal cells are recognized as the ultimate effector of fibrosis and attempts to better understand the different functions and actions of each mesenchymal cell subtype will lead to a better understanding of why fibrosis develops and how to better target it for future therapy. This review summarizes current findings related to various lung mesenchymal cells as well as signaling pathways, and their contribution to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.

Mesenchymal Cells in The Lung: Evolving Concepts and Their Role in Fibrosis

Marco Confalonieri;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Mesenchymal cells in the lung are crucial during development, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common and deadly form of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases. Originally thought to behave as supporting cells for the lung epithelium and endothelium with a singular function of producing basement membrane, mesenchymal cells encompass a variety of cell types, including resident fibroblasts, lipofibroblasts, myofibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and pericytes, which all occupy different anatomic locations and exhibit diverse homeostatic functions in the lung. During injury, each of these subtypes demonstrate remarkable plasticity and undergo varying capacity to proliferate and differentiate into activated myofibroblasts. Therefore, these cells secrete high levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to tissue repair, or in pathologic situations, scarring and fibrosis. Whereas epithelial damage is considered the initial trigger that leads to lung injury, lung mesenchymal cells are recognized as the ultimate effector of fibrosis and attempts to better understand the different functions and actions of each mesenchymal cell subtype will lead to a better understanding of why fibrosis develops and how to better target it for future therapy. This review summarizes current findings related to various lung mesenchymal cells as well as signaling pathways, and their contribution to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.
2023
2-gen-2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3037558
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