Ageing is a biological process caused by the malfunctioning of multiple cellular mechanisms, ascribable to nine hallmarks: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. These ageing pillars have three common traits: (i) they appear during normal ageing; (ii) their experimental intensification accelerates ageing; and (iii) their experimental reduction delays ageing. The evidence that the elderly are more prone to develop pathologies such as cancer, diabetes and degenerative diseases, together with data showing that the elderly population is steadily increasing, has stimulated an important effort to find specific countermeasures to physiological ageing. Unfortunately, the investigation of ageing processes and the search for countermeasures in humans is very difficult. Therefore, researchers must rely on a wide range of experimental models that span from unicellular to more complex organisms. Unfortunately, experimental models are not devoid of pitfalls, flaws or obstacles that can have an impact in ageing research. In the present review we describe the most exploited experimental models in the field, such as in vitro, animal and human models, highlighting the characteristics that justify their application in the laboratory routine, and translation to human research.

Experimental models for ageing research

Giacomello, Emiliana
2023-01-01

Abstract

Ageing is a biological process caused by the malfunctioning of multiple cellular mechanisms, ascribable to nine hallmarks: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. These ageing pillars have three common traits: (i) they appear during normal ageing; (ii) their experimental intensification accelerates ageing; and (iii) their experimental reduction delays ageing. The evidence that the elderly are more prone to develop pathologies such as cancer, diabetes and degenerative diseases, together with data showing that the elderly population is steadily increasing, has stimulated an important effort to find specific countermeasures to physiological ageing. Unfortunately, the investigation of ageing processes and the search for countermeasures in humans is very difficult. Therefore, researchers must rely on a wide range of experimental models that span from unicellular to more complex organisms. Unfortunately, experimental models are not devoid of pitfalls, flaws or obstacles that can have an impact in ageing research. In the present review we describe the most exploited experimental models in the field, such as in vitro, animal and human models, highlighting the characteristics that justify their application in the laboratory routine, and translation to human research.
2023
16-dic-2022
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https://www.hh.um.es/Abstracts/Vol_38/38_6/38_6_597.htm
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3037583
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