: Neuron-restrictive silencer factor/repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor (NRSF/REST) is a transcriptional repressor of a large cluster of neural genes containing RE1 motifs in their promoter region. NRSF/REST is ubiquitously expressed in non-neuronal cells, including astrocytes, while it is downregulated during neuronal differentiation. While neuronal NRSF/REST homeostatically regulates intrinsic excitability and synaptic transmission, the role of the high NRSF/REST expression levels in the homeostatic functions of astrocytes is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of NRSF/REST deletion in primary cortical astrocytes derived from NRSF/REST conditional knockout mice (KO). We found that NRSF/REST KO astrocyte displayed a markedly reduced activity of inward rectifying K+ channels subtype 4.1 (Kir4.1) underlying spatial K+ buffering that was associated with a decreased expression and activity of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) responsible for glutamate uptake by astrocytes. The effects of the impaired astrocyte homeostatic functions on neuronal activity were investigated by co-culturing wild type hippocampal neurons with NRSF/REST KO astrocytes. Interestingly, neurons experienced increased neuronal excitability at high firing rates associated with decrease afterhyperpolarization and increased amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents. The data indicate that astrocytic NRSF/REST directly participates in neural circuit homeostasis by regulating intrinsic excitability and excitatory transmission and that dysfunctions of NRSF/REST expression in astrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders.

Neuron-restrictive silencer factor/repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (NRSF/REST) controls spatial K+ buffering in primary cortical astrocytes

Cesca, Fabrizia;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Neuron-restrictive silencer factor/repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor (NRSF/REST) is a transcriptional repressor of a large cluster of neural genes containing RE1 motifs in their promoter region. NRSF/REST is ubiquitously expressed in non-neuronal cells, including astrocytes, while it is downregulated during neuronal differentiation. While neuronal NRSF/REST homeostatically regulates intrinsic excitability and synaptic transmission, the role of the high NRSF/REST expression levels in the homeostatic functions of astrocytes is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of NRSF/REST deletion in primary cortical astrocytes derived from NRSF/REST conditional knockout mice (KO). We found that NRSF/REST KO astrocyte displayed a markedly reduced activity of inward rectifying K+ channels subtype 4.1 (Kir4.1) underlying spatial K+ buffering that was associated with a decreased expression and activity of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) responsible for glutamate uptake by astrocytes. The effects of the impaired astrocyte homeostatic functions on neuronal activity were investigated by co-culturing wild type hippocampal neurons with NRSF/REST KO astrocytes. Interestingly, neurons experienced increased neuronal excitability at high firing rates associated with decrease afterhyperpolarization and increased amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents. The data indicate that astrocytic NRSF/REST directly participates in neural circuit homeostasis by regulating intrinsic excitability and excitatory transmission and that dysfunctions of NRSF/REST expression in astrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurological disorders.
2023
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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jnc.15755
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3038346
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