Human skeletal muscle atrophy and a disproportionate force loss occur within a few days of unloading in space and on Earth, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Dis- ruption of neuromuscular junction homeostasis has been proposed as one of the possible causes. Here, we investigated the potential mechanisms involved in this neuromuscular disruption induced by a 10-day unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) in humans. Specifically, we investigated hem- ichannels’ upregulation, neuromuscular junction and axonal damage, neurotrophins’ receptor downregulation and inflammatory transcriptional signatures. Biomarkers were evaluated at local and systemic levels. At the sarcolemmal level, changes were found to be associated with an in- creased expression of connexin 43 and pannexin-1. Upregulation of the inflammatory transcripts revealed by deep transcriptomics was found after 10 days of ULLS. The destabilisation of the neu- romuscular junction was not accompanied by changes in the secretion of the brain-derived neu- rotrophic factor and neurotrophin-4, while their receptor, BDNF/NT growth factors receptor (TrkB), decreased. Furthermore, at 5 days of ULLS, there was already a significant upregulation of the se- rum neurofilament light chain concentration, an established clinical biomarker of axonal injury. At 10 days of ULLS, other biomarkers of early denervation processes appeared. Hence, short periods of muscle unloading induce sarcolemmal hemichannels upregulation, inflammatory transcripts up- regulation, neuromuscular junction instability and axonal damage.

Upregulation of Sarcolemmal Hemichannels and Inflammatory Transcripts with Neuromuscular Junction Instability during Lower Limb Unloading in Humans

Monti, Elena;Giacomello, Emiliana
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Human skeletal muscle atrophy and a disproportionate force loss occur within a few days of unloading in space and on Earth, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Dis- ruption of neuromuscular junction homeostasis has been proposed as one of the possible causes. Here, we investigated the potential mechanisms involved in this neuromuscular disruption induced by a 10-day unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) in humans. Specifically, we investigated hem- ichannels’ upregulation, neuromuscular junction and axonal damage, neurotrophins’ receptor downregulation and inflammatory transcriptional signatures. Biomarkers were evaluated at local and systemic levels. At the sarcolemmal level, changes were found to be associated with an in- creased expression of connexin 43 and pannexin-1. Upregulation of the inflammatory transcripts revealed by deep transcriptomics was found after 10 days of ULLS. The destabilisation of the neu- romuscular junction was not accompanied by changes in the secretion of the brain-derived neu- rotrophic factor and neurotrophin-4, while their receptor, BDNF/NT growth factors receptor (TrkB), decreased. Furthermore, at 5 days of ULLS, there was already a significant upregulation of the se- rum neurofilament light chain concentration, an established clinical biomarker of axonal injury. At 10 days of ULLS, other biomarkers of early denervation processes appeared. Hence, short periods of muscle unloading induce sarcolemmal hemichannels upregulation, inflammatory transcripts up- regulation, neuromuscular junction instability and axonal damage.
2023
Pubblicato
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/12/3/431
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3041404
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