To date, the putative shellfish toxin azaspiracid 59 (AZA-59) produced by Azadinium poporum (Dinophyceae) has been the only AZA found in isolates from the Pacific Northwest coast of the USA (Northeast Pacific Ocean). Anecdotal reports of sporadic diarrhetic shellfish poisoning-like illness, with the absence of DSP toxin or Vibrio contamination, led to efforts to look for other potential toxins, such as AZAs, in water and shellfish from the region. A. poporum was found in Puget Sound and the outer coast of Washington State, USA, and a novel AZA (putative AZA-59) was detected in low quantities in SPATT resins and shellfish. Here, an A. poporum strain from Puget Sound was mass-cultured and AZA-59 was subsequently purified and structurally characterized. In vitro cytotoxicity of AZA-59 towards Jurkat T lymphocytes and acute intraperitoneal toxicity in mice in comparison to AZA-1 allowed the derivation of a provisional toxicity equivalency factor of 0.8 for AZA-59. Quantification of AZA-59 using ELISA and LC-MS/MS yielded reasonable quantitative results when AZA-1 was used as an external reference standard. This study assesses the toxic potency of AZA-59 and will inform guidelines for its potential monitoring in case of increasing toxin levels in edible shellfish.

Structure and toxicity of AZA-59, an azaspiracid shellfish poisoning toxin produced by Azadinium poporum (Dinophyceae)

Tubaro A.;Sosa S.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

To date, the putative shellfish toxin azaspiracid 59 (AZA-59) produced by Azadinium poporum (Dinophyceae) has been the only AZA found in isolates from the Pacific Northwest coast of the USA (Northeast Pacific Ocean). Anecdotal reports of sporadic diarrhetic shellfish poisoning-like illness, with the absence of DSP toxin or Vibrio contamination, led to efforts to look for other potential toxins, such as AZAs, in water and shellfish from the region. A. poporum was found in Puget Sound and the outer coast of Washington State, USA, and a novel AZA (putative AZA-59) was detected in low quantities in SPATT resins and shellfish. Here, an A. poporum strain from Puget Sound was mass-cultured and AZA-59 was subsequently purified and structurally characterized. In vitro cytotoxicity of AZA-59 towards Jurkat T lymphocytes and acute intraperitoneal toxicity in mice in comparison to AZA-1 allowed the derivation of a provisional toxicity equivalency factor of 0.8 for AZA-59. Quantification of AZA-59 using ELISA and LC-MS/MS yielded reasonable quantitative results when AZA-1 was used as an external reference standard. This study assesses the toxic potency of AZA-59 and will inform guidelines for its potential monitoring in case of increasing toxin levels in edible shellfish.
2023
23-gen-2023
Pubblicato
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S156898832300015X?via=ihub
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
AZA59 pubblicato.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Documento in Versione Editoriale
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 5.92 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
5.92 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
1-s2.0-S156898832300015X-mmc1.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Documento in Versione Editoriale
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 2.92 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.92 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3044322
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact