: In the 100 years since its discovery, lysozyme has become an important molecule, both as model for studies in different fields and as a candidate for the therapy of various pathological conditions. Of the dozens of known lysozymes, in this review we focus on one in particular, lysozyme extracted from hen egg white (HEWL), and its interaction with the immune system when it is administered orally. Experimental data show that there is an axis that directs immune system activation from GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue) and the intestinal lymphocyte clusters. Although a contribution of peptidoglycans from digestion of the bacterial cell wall in the intestinal lumen cannot be excluded, immune stimulation is not dependent on the enzymatic activity of HEWL. The immune responses suggest that HEWL is able to recover from immunodepression caused by tumor growth or immunosuppressants, and that it also improves the success of chemotherapy. The positive results obtained in a small Phase 2 study in patients, the ease of oral administration of this protein, and the absence of adverse effects suggest that HEWL may play an important role in all diseases where the immune system is weakened or where its enhancement plays a critical role in the resolution of the pathology.

Pharmacological Modulation of Host Immunity with Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL)-A Review

Bergamo, Alberta;Sava, Gianni
2023-01-01

Abstract

: In the 100 years since its discovery, lysozyme has become an important molecule, both as model for studies in different fields and as a candidate for the therapy of various pathological conditions. Of the dozens of known lysozymes, in this review we focus on one in particular, lysozyme extracted from hen egg white (HEWL), and its interaction with the immune system when it is administered orally. Experimental data show that there is an axis that directs immune system activation from GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue) and the intestinal lymphocyte clusters. Although a contribution of peptidoglycans from digestion of the bacterial cell wall in the intestinal lumen cannot be excluded, immune stimulation is not dependent on the enzymatic activity of HEWL. The immune responses suggest that HEWL is able to recover from immunodepression caused by tumor growth or immunosuppressants, and that it also improves the success of chemotherapy. The positive results obtained in a small Phase 2 study in patients, the ease of oral administration of this protein, and the absence of adverse effects suggest that HEWL may play an important role in all diseases where the immune system is weakened or where its enhancement plays a critical role in the resolution of the pathology.
2023
Pubblicato
https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/28/13/5027
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3052158
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