The beneficial impact of dietary fiber on the prevention and management of several chronic conditions associated with aging, including diabetes, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, is well-known. High fiber intake has been associated with reduced inflammatory mediators counteracting the low-grade chronic inflammation typical of older age. In addition, dietary fiber improves postprandial glucose response and insulin resistance. In contrast, during acute diseases, its effects on insulin resistance and modulation of immune response are unclear. The aim of this narrative is to summarize the evidence for the potential impact of dietary fiber on inflammation and insulin resistance in older adults, with a particular focus on those acutely ill. Available evidence suggests that dietary fiber has the potential to counteract acute inflammation and to improve metabolic health. In addition, modulation of gut microbiota composition may contribute to improved immune function, particularly in the setting of aging-associated dysbiosis. This phenomenon has relevant implications in those acutely ill, in whom dysbiosis can be exacerbated. Our review leads to the conclusion that dietary interventions based on fiber manipulation could exploit its beneficial effects on inflammation and insulin resistance, if conducted from a precision nutrition perspective. This could also be true for the acutely ill patient, even though strong evidence is lacking.

Impact of Dietary Fiber on Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Older Patients: A Narrative Review

Niero M.;Bartoli G.;De Colle P.;Zanetti M.
2023-01-01

Abstract

The beneficial impact of dietary fiber on the prevention and management of several chronic conditions associated with aging, including diabetes, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, is well-known. High fiber intake has been associated with reduced inflammatory mediators counteracting the low-grade chronic inflammation typical of older age. In addition, dietary fiber improves postprandial glucose response and insulin resistance. In contrast, during acute diseases, its effects on insulin resistance and modulation of immune response are unclear. The aim of this narrative is to summarize the evidence for the potential impact of dietary fiber on inflammation and insulin resistance in older adults, with a particular focus on those acutely ill. Available evidence suggests that dietary fiber has the potential to counteract acute inflammation and to improve metabolic health. In addition, modulation of gut microbiota composition may contribute to improved immune function, particularly in the setting of aging-associated dysbiosis. This phenomenon has relevant implications in those acutely ill, in whom dysbiosis can be exacerbated. Our review leads to the conclusion that dietary interventions based on fiber manipulation could exploit its beneficial effects on inflammation and insulin resistance, if conducted from a precision nutrition perspective. This could also be true for the acutely ill patient, even though strong evidence is lacking.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3052979
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