Aim: Different guidelines provide similar, but not identical, therapeutic targets for HbA1c in type 2 diabetes. These targets can also depend from the different pharmacological strategies adopted for intensifying glycemic control. Data synthesis: This meta-analysis includes randomized trials adopting any pharmacological regimen for intensifying glycemic control in T2DM (versus standard of care/placebo), with a trial duration >2 years and a between-group HbA1c difference>0.5%. The primary outcome was to assess the effects of the improvement of glycemic control on major cardiovascular events (MACE), ocular and renal complications, and severe hypoglycemia. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (MH-OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated for all the outcomes considered. We included 13 trials fulfilling the inclusion criteria. The improvement of glycemic control was associated with a lower risk of MACE (MH-OR:0.89 [95%CI 0.85-0.94]) and renal adverse events (MH-OR 0.73 [0.65-0.82]), but not all-cause mortality (MH-OR 0.95 [0.88-1.01]) and ocular adverse complications (MH-OR 0.94 [0.72-1.22]). For glucose-lowering drugs inducing hypoglycemia, a protective effect on the risk of microvascular complications, but not of MACE and all cause mortality, was observed only for HbA1c < 48 mmol/mol, but with higher risk of severe hypoglycaemia (MH-OR 2.72 [1.79-4.13]). Drugs not inducing hypoglycaemia were associated with a reduction of MACE, renal adverse events, and all-cause mortality, for HbA1c< 7% (no data for lower targets). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis show that the improvement of glycemic control with drugs not inducing hypoglycemia is associated with a reduction in the risk of long-term chronic vascular and renal complications, and all-cause mortality.

Improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Candido, Riccardo;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Aim: Different guidelines provide similar, but not identical, therapeutic targets for HbA1c in type 2 diabetes. These targets can also depend from the different pharmacological strategies adopted for intensifying glycemic control. Data synthesis: This meta-analysis includes randomized trials adopting any pharmacological regimen for intensifying glycemic control in T2DM (versus standard of care/placebo), with a trial duration >2 years and a between-group HbA1c difference>0.5%. The primary outcome was to assess the effects of the improvement of glycemic control on major cardiovascular events (MACE), ocular and renal complications, and severe hypoglycemia. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (MH-OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated for all the outcomes considered. We included 13 trials fulfilling the inclusion criteria. The improvement of glycemic control was associated with a lower risk of MACE (MH-OR:0.89 [95%CI 0.85-0.94]) and renal adverse events (MH-OR 0.73 [0.65-0.82]), but not all-cause mortality (MH-OR 0.95 [0.88-1.01]) and ocular adverse complications (MH-OR 0.94 [0.72-1.22]). For glucose-lowering drugs inducing hypoglycemia, a protective effect on the risk of microvascular complications, but not of MACE and all cause mortality, was observed only for HbA1c < 48 mmol/mol, but with higher risk of severe hypoglycaemia (MH-OR 2.72 [1.79-4.13]). Drugs not inducing hypoglycaemia were associated with a reduction of MACE, renal adverse events, and all-cause mortality, for HbA1c< 7% (no data for lower targets). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis show that the improvement of glycemic control with drugs not inducing hypoglycemia is associated with a reduction in the risk of long-term chronic vascular and renal complications, and all-cause mortality.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3055001
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