The global decline in amphibian populations is a major environmental issue. Chytridiomycosis, Ranaviruses and the red-leg syndrome have been identified in unusual mortality events. However, these infections do not account for all causes of declining amphibian populations. Moreover, several cases of amphibian mortality are difficult to solve without resorting to an interdisciplinary approach. Two cases of unusual mortality in Rana temporaria occurred at two high-mountain ponds (northwest Italy) in April and May 2021. Water and frog samples were analysed to understand the possible causes responsible for the unusual mortalities. Results of the main physi-cochemical (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand) and nutrient (ammonia/ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, total phosphorus) parameters revealed a good condition of the water quality, with the absence of the main cyanotoxins (microcystins/nodularins). However, unseasonably high spring water temperatures were recorded in both ponds (12.73 degrees C and 14.21 degrees C for Frog Pond and Selleries Pond, respectively). Frogs (n = 50; snout-vent length: 7.0-9.8 cm; body mass: 85-123 g) collected from Frog Pond mainly presented bumps on the ventral cavity and dermal ulceration associated with the isolation of Carno-bacterium maltaromaticum. On the other hand, frogs (n = 5; snout-vent length: 8.0-9.1 cm; body mass: 87-92 g) from Selleries Pond presented petechiae and dermal ulcerations on the rear limbs associated with the isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida and A. sobria. In both mortality events, the interdisciplinary approach revealed an as-sociation between frog mortalities and the isolation of bacteria. Isolated bacteria are considered opportunistic pathogens, and the high values of the water temperature has certainly led a stress on the frogs, favouring the spread of bacteria and the death of the frogs. Further studies are needed to assess the pathophysiological effects of the opportunistic bacteria here isolated, clarifying the interactions between emerging pathogens and climate change.

Interdisciplinary approach to solve unusual mortalities in the European common frog (Rana temporaria) in two high-mountain ponds affected by climate change

Pastorino, Paolo
;
Renzi, Monia;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The global decline in amphibian populations is a major environmental issue. Chytridiomycosis, Ranaviruses and the red-leg syndrome have been identified in unusual mortality events. However, these infections do not account for all causes of declining amphibian populations. Moreover, several cases of amphibian mortality are difficult to solve without resorting to an interdisciplinary approach. Two cases of unusual mortality in Rana temporaria occurred at two high-mountain ponds (northwest Italy) in April and May 2021. Water and frog samples were analysed to understand the possible causes responsible for the unusual mortalities. Results of the main physi-cochemical (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand) and nutrient (ammonia/ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, total phosphorus) parameters revealed a good condition of the water quality, with the absence of the main cyanotoxins (microcystins/nodularins). However, unseasonably high spring water temperatures were recorded in both ponds (12.73 degrees C and 14.21 degrees C for Frog Pond and Selleries Pond, respectively). Frogs (n = 50; snout-vent length: 7.0-9.8 cm; body mass: 85-123 g) collected from Frog Pond mainly presented bumps on the ventral cavity and dermal ulceration associated with the isolation of Carno-bacterium maltaromaticum. On the other hand, frogs (n = 5; snout-vent length: 8.0-9.1 cm; body mass: 87-92 g) from Selleries Pond presented petechiae and dermal ulcerations on the rear limbs associated with the isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida and A. sobria. In both mortality events, the interdisciplinary approach revealed an as-sociation between frog mortalities and the isolation of bacteria. Isolated bacteria are considered opportunistic pathogens, and the high values of the water temperature has certainly led a stress on the frogs, favouring the spread of bacteria and the death of the frogs. Further studies are needed to assess the pathophysiological effects of the opportunistic bacteria here isolated, clarifying the interactions between emerging pathogens and climate change.
2023
Pubblicato
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935123002037
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
1-s2.0-S0013935123002037-main.pdf

Accesso chiuso

Tipologia: Documento in Versione Editoriale
Licenza: Copyright Editore
Dimensione 5.63 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
5.63 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
1-s2.0-S0013935123002037-main-Post_print.pdf

Open Access dal 03/02/2024

Tipologia: Bozza finale post-referaggio (post-print)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 6.06 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
6.06 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3056789
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 4
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 3
social impact