Cocaine abuse is a serious public health problem as this drug exerts a plethora of functional and histopathological changes that potentially lead to death. Cocaine causes complex multiorgan toxicity, including in the heart where the blockade of the sodium channels causes increased catecholamine levels and alteration in calcium homeostasis, thus inducing an increased oxygen demand. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that mitochondria alterations play a crucial role in the development of cocaine cardiotoxicity. We performed a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) scheme to evaluate the mitochondrial mechanisms determining cocaine cardiotoxicity. Among the initial 106 articles from the Pubmed database and the 17 articles identified through citation searching, 14 final relevant studies were extensively reviewed. Thirteen articles included animal models and reported the alteration of specific mitochondria-dependent mechanisms such as reduced energy production, imbalance of membrane potential, increased oxidative stress, and promotion of apoptosis. However, only one study evaluated human cocaine overdose samples and observed the role of cocaine in oxidative stress and the induction of apoptosis though mitochondria. Understanding the complex processes mediated by mitochondria through forensic analysis and experimental models is crucial for identifying potential therapeutic targets to mitigate or reverse cocaine cardiotoxicity in humans.

Subcellular Effectors of Cocaine Cardiotoxicity: All Roads Lead to Mitochondria—A Systematic Review of the Literature

Peruch, Michela;Giacomello, Emiliana;Radaelli, Davide;Concato, Monica;Addobbati, Riccardo;Fluca, Alessandra Lucia;Aleksova, Aneta;D’Errico, Stefano
2023-01-01

Abstract

Cocaine abuse is a serious public health problem as this drug exerts a plethora of functional and histopathological changes that potentially lead to death. Cocaine causes complex multiorgan toxicity, including in the heart where the blockade of the sodium channels causes increased catecholamine levels and alteration in calcium homeostasis, thus inducing an increased oxygen demand. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that mitochondria alterations play a crucial role in the development of cocaine cardiotoxicity. We performed a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) scheme to evaluate the mitochondrial mechanisms determining cocaine cardiotoxicity. Among the initial 106 articles from the Pubmed database and the 17 articles identified through citation searching, 14 final relevant studies were extensively reviewed. Thirteen articles included animal models and reported the alteration of specific mitochondria-dependent mechanisms such as reduced energy production, imbalance of membrane potential, increased oxidative stress, and promotion of apoptosis. However, only one study evaluated human cocaine overdose samples and observed the role of cocaine in oxidative stress and the induction of apoptosis though mitochondria. Understanding the complex processes mediated by mitochondria through forensic analysis and experimental models is crucial for identifying potential therapeutic targets to mitigate or reverse cocaine cardiotoxicity in humans.
2023
25-set-2023
Pubblicato
https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/24/19/14517
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3059178
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