Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is an underdiagnosed condition caused by the deposition of misfolded proteins, namely immunoglobulin light chains and transthyretin, in the extracellular spaces of the heart. Any cardiovascular structure can be affected by amyloid infiltration, including the valves. Amyloid accumulation within the cardiac valves may lead to their structural and functional impairment, with a profound impact on patients' prognosis and quality of life. The most common forms of valvular disease in CA are aortic stenosis (AS), mitral regurgitation (MR), and tricuspid regurgitation (TR). CA and AS share similar risk factors, disease mechanisms, and remodeling patterns, which make their diagnosis particularly challenging. Patients with both CA and AS experience worse outcomes than CA or AS alone, and transcatheter aortic valve replacement may represent a useful therapeutic strategy in this population. Data on MR and TR are quite limited and mainly coming from case reports or small series. This review paper will summarize our current understanding on the epidemiology, disease mechanisms, echocardiographic features, clinical implications, and therapeutic options of AS, MR, and TR in patients with CA.

Valvular heart disease in patients with cardiac amyloidosis

Sinagra, Gianfranco;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is an underdiagnosed condition caused by the deposition of misfolded proteins, namely immunoglobulin light chains and transthyretin, in the extracellular spaces of the heart. Any cardiovascular structure can be affected by amyloid infiltration, including the valves. Amyloid accumulation within the cardiac valves may lead to their structural and functional impairment, with a profound impact on patients' prognosis and quality of life. The most common forms of valvular disease in CA are aortic stenosis (AS), mitral regurgitation (MR), and tricuspid regurgitation (TR). CA and AS share similar risk factors, disease mechanisms, and remodeling patterns, which make their diagnosis particularly challenging. Patients with both CA and AS experience worse outcomes than CA or AS alone, and transcatheter aortic valve replacement may represent a useful therapeutic strategy in this population. Data on MR and TR are quite limited and mainly coming from case reports or small series. This review paper will summarize our current understanding on the epidemiology, disease mechanisms, echocardiographic features, clinical implications, and therapeutic options of AS, MR, and TR in patients with CA.
2024
22-set-2023
Pubblicato
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10741-023-10350-1
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10904406/
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3059502
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