Background: The optimal treatment approach for hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (HR+/HER2-negative MBC) with aggressive characteristics remains controversial, with lack of randomized trials comparing cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4/6-inhibitors (CDK4/6i) + endocrine therapy (ET) with chemotherapy + ET. Materials and methods: We conducted an open-label randomized phase II trial (NCT03227328) to investigate whether chemotherapy + ET is superior to CDK4/6i + ET for HR+/HER2-negative MBC with aggressive features. PAM50 intrinsic subtypes (IS), immunological features, and gene expression were assessed on baseline samples. Results: Among 49 randomized patients (median follow-up: 35.2 months), median progression-free survival (mPFS) with chemotherapy + ET (11.2 months, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.7-15.4) was numerically shorter than mPFS (19.9 months, 95% CI: 9.0-30.6) with CDK4/6i + ET (hazard ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.75-2.64). Basal-like tumors under CDK4/6i + ET exhibited worse PFS (mPFS: 11.4 months, 95% CI: 3.00-not reached [NR]) and overall survival (OS; mOS: 18.8 months, 95% CI: 18.8-NR) compared to other subtypes (mPFS: 20.7 months, 95% CI: 9.00-33.4; mOS: NR, 95% CI: 24.4-NR). In the chemotherapy arm, luminal A tumors showed poorer PFS (mPFS: 5.1 months, 95% CI: 2.7-NR) than other IS (mPFS: 13.2 months, 95% CI: 10.6-28.1). Genes/pathways involved in BC cell survival and proliferation were associated with worse outcomes, as opposite to most immune-related genes/signatures, especially in the CDK4/6i arm. CD24 was the only gene significantly associated with worse PFS in both arms. Tertiary lymphoid structures and higher tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes also showed favorable survival trends in the CDK4/6i arm. Conclusions: The KENDO trial, although closed prematurely, adds further evidence supporting CDK4/6i + ET use in aggressive HR+/HER2-negative MBC instead of chemotherapy. PAM50 IS, genomic, and immunological features are promising biomarkers to personalize therapeutic choices.

CDK4/6-Inhibitors Versus Chemotherapy in Advanced HR+/HER2-Negative Breast Cancer: Results and Correlative Biomarker Analyses of the KENDO Randomized Phase II Trial

Rocca, Andrea;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: The optimal treatment approach for hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (HR+/HER2-negative MBC) with aggressive characteristics remains controversial, with lack of randomized trials comparing cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4/6-inhibitors (CDK4/6i) + endocrine therapy (ET) with chemotherapy + ET. Materials and methods: We conducted an open-label randomized phase II trial (NCT03227328) to investigate whether chemotherapy + ET is superior to CDK4/6i + ET for HR+/HER2-negative MBC with aggressive features. PAM50 intrinsic subtypes (IS), immunological features, and gene expression were assessed on baseline samples. Results: Among 49 randomized patients (median follow-up: 35.2 months), median progression-free survival (mPFS) with chemotherapy + ET (11.2 months, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.7-15.4) was numerically shorter than mPFS (19.9 months, 95% CI: 9.0-30.6) with CDK4/6i + ET (hazard ratio: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.75-2.64). Basal-like tumors under CDK4/6i + ET exhibited worse PFS (mPFS: 11.4 months, 95% CI: 3.00-not reached [NR]) and overall survival (OS; mOS: 18.8 months, 95% CI: 18.8-NR) compared to other subtypes (mPFS: 20.7 months, 95% CI: 9.00-33.4; mOS: NR, 95% CI: 24.4-NR). In the chemotherapy arm, luminal A tumors showed poorer PFS (mPFS: 5.1 months, 95% CI: 2.7-NR) than other IS (mPFS: 13.2 months, 95% CI: 10.6-28.1). Genes/pathways involved in BC cell survival and proliferation were associated with worse outcomes, as opposite to most immune-related genes/signatures, especially in the CDK4/6i arm. CD24 was the only gene significantly associated with worse PFS in both arms. Tertiary lymphoid structures and higher tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes also showed favorable survival trends in the CDK4/6i arm. Conclusions: The KENDO trial, although closed prematurely, adds further evidence supporting CDK4/6i + ET use in aggressive HR+/HER2-negative MBC instead of chemotherapy. PAM50 IS, genomic, and immunological features are promising biomarkers to personalize therapeutic choices.
2024
4-gen-2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3067301
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