Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Previous clinical trials showed that autologous CD34+ cell gene therapy (GT) following busulfan reduced-intensity conditioning is a promising therapeutic approach for ADA-SCID, but long-term data are warranted. Here we report an analysis on long-term safety and efficacy data of 43 patients with ADA-SCID who received retroviral ex vivo bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cell GT. Twenty-two individuals (median follow-up 15.4 years) were treated in the context of clinical development or named patient program. Nineteen patients were treated post-marketing authorization (median follow-up 3.2 years), and two additional patients received mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cell GT. At data cutoff, all 43 patients were alive, with a median follow-up of 5.0 years (interquartile range 2.4-15.4) and 2 years intervention-free survival (no need for long-term enzyme replacement therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) of 88% (95% confidence interval 78.7-98.4%). Most adverse events/reactions were related to disease background, busulfan conditioning or immune reconstitution; the safety profile of the real world experience was in line with premarketing cohort. One patient from the named patient program developed a T cell leukemia related to treatment 4.7 years after GT and is currently in remission. Long-term persistence of multilineage gene-corrected cells, metabolic detoxification, immune reconstitution and decreased infection rates were observed. Estimated mixed-effects models showed that higher dose of CD34+ cells infused and younger age at GT affected positively the plateau of CD3+ transduced cells, lymphocytes and CD4+ CD45RA+ naive T cells, whereas the cell dose positively influenced the final plateau of CD15+ transduced cells. These long-term data suggest that the risk-benefit of GT in ADA remains favorable and warrant for continuing long-term safety monitoring. Clinical trial registration: NCT00598481 , NCT0347867

Long-term and real-world safety and efficacy of retroviral gene therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency

Tommasini, Alberto;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Previous clinical trials showed that autologous CD34+ cell gene therapy (GT) following busulfan reduced-intensity conditioning is a promising therapeutic approach for ADA-SCID, but long-term data are warranted. Here we report an analysis on long-term safety and efficacy data of 43 patients with ADA-SCID who received retroviral ex vivo bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cell GT. Twenty-two individuals (median follow-up 15.4 years) were treated in the context of clinical development or named patient program. Nineteen patients were treated post-marketing authorization (median follow-up 3.2 years), and two additional patients received mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cell GT. At data cutoff, all 43 patients were alive, with a median follow-up of 5.0 years (interquartile range 2.4-15.4) and 2 years intervention-free survival (no need for long-term enzyme replacement therapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) of 88% (95% confidence interval 78.7-98.4%). Most adverse events/reactions were related to disease background, busulfan conditioning or immune reconstitution; the safety profile of the real world experience was in line with premarketing cohort. One patient from the named patient program developed a T cell leukemia related to treatment 4.7 years after GT and is currently in remission. Long-term persistence of multilineage gene-corrected cells, metabolic detoxification, immune reconstitution and decreased infection rates were observed. Estimated mixed-effects models showed that higher dose of CD34+ cells infused and younger age at GT affected positively the plateau of CD3+ transduced cells, lymphocytes and CD4+ CD45RA+ naive T cells, whereas the cell dose positively influenced the final plateau of CD15+ transduced cells. These long-term data suggest that the risk-benefit of GT in ADA remains favorable and warrant for continuing long-term safety monitoring. Clinical trial registration: NCT00598481 , NCT0347867
2024
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https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-023-02789-4
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3069239
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