Background: Physiological thoracic kyphosis (TK) allows sagittal balance of human body. Unlike lumbar lordosis (LL), TK has been relatively neglected in the literature. EOS is an imaging technique employing high-sensitivity xenon particles, featured by low-dose exposure combined with high accuracy compared to conventional radiography. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of TK in patients with phyiological spine morphology using EOS imaging. Methods: EOS images of 455 patients without spinal anomalies were retrospectively assessed for TK (T1- T12), upper thoracic kyphosis (UTK, T1-T5), lower thoracic kyphosis (LTK, T5-T12), LL (L1-S1) and pelvic incidence (PI). The latter curves were measured by two researchers separately and the average of the two measurements was used for further analysis. Spearman non-parametric correlation was estimated for age, PI, LL, LTK, UTK and TK. Multiple robust linear regression analysis was employed to estimate TK, controlling for the effect of age, sex, LL and LTK. Results: The mean age of patients was 28.3 ± 19.2 years and 302 (66.4%) of them were females. The mean TK, UTK and LTK was 45.5° ± 9.3, 16 ± 7.4° and 29.7° ± 8.9, respectively. The mean UTK in people under 40 years of age was 17.0° ± 7.2, whereas for patients 40+ years old it was 13.6° ± 7.4. At univariable analysis TK positively correlated with UTK (p<0.001), LTK (p<0.001) an LL (p<0.001). At multivariable linear regression TK increased with LTK (RC = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.59; 0.75) or LL (RC = 0.12; 95%CI: 0.06; 0.18), whereas it decreased with age (RC = -0.06; 95%CI: -0.09;-0.02). Conclusion: If EOS technology is available, the above linear regression model could be used to estimate TK based upon information on age, sex, LL and LTK. Alternatively, TK could be estimated by adding to LTK 17.0° ± 7.4 for patients < 40 years of age, or 13.6° ± 7.4 in patients 40 + years old. The evidence from the present study may be used as reference for research purposes and clinical practice, including spine examination of particular occupational categories or athletes.

Estimating thoracic kyphosis without information on upper thoracic kyphosis: an observational study on 455 patients examined by EOS imaging

Luca Cegolon
Formal Analysis
;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: Physiological thoracic kyphosis (TK) allows sagittal balance of human body. Unlike lumbar lordosis (LL), TK has been relatively neglected in the literature. EOS is an imaging technique employing high-sensitivity xenon particles, featured by low-dose exposure combined with high accuracy compared to conventional radiography. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of TK in patients with phyiological spine morphology using EOS imaging. Methods: EOS images of 455 patients without spinal anomalies were retrospectively assessed for TK (T1- T12), upper thoracic kyphosis (UTK, T1-T5), lower thoracic kyphosis (LTK, T5-T12), LL (L1-S1) and pelvic incidence (PI). The latter curves were measured by two researchers separately and the average of the two measurements was used for further analysis. Spearman non-parametric correlation was estimated for age, PI, LL, LTK, UTK and TK. Multiple robust linear regression analysis was employed to estimate TK, controlling for the effect of age, sex, LL and LTK. Results: The mean age of patients was 28.3 ± 19.2 years and 302 (66.4%) of them were females. The mean TK, UTK and LTK was 45.5° ± 9.3, 16 ± 7.4° and 29.7° ± 8.9, respectively. The mean UTK in people under 40 years of age was 17.0° ± 7.2, whereas for patients 40+ years old it was 13.6° ± 7.4. At univariable analysis TK positively correlated with UTK (p<0.001), LTK (p<0.001) an LL (p<0.001). At multivariable linear regression TK increased with LTK (RC = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.59; 0.75) or LL (RC = 0.12; 95%CI: 0.06; 0.18), whereas it decreased with age (RC = -0.06; 95%CI: -0.09;-0.02). Conclusion: If EOS technology is available, the above linear regression model could be used to estimate TK based upon information on age, sex, LL and LTK. Alternatively, TK could be estimated by adding to LTK 17.0° ± 7.4 for patients < 40 years of age, or 13.6° ± 7.4 in patients 40 + years old. The evidence from the present study may be used as reference for research purposes and clinical practice, including spine examination of particular occupational categories or athletes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/3075599
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