Unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) may lower skeletal muscle oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance in lean and obese rodents. UnAG-induced autophagy activation may contribute to these effects, likely involving removal of dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy) and redox state maintenance. In chronic kidney disease (CKD) oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance may negatively influence patient outcome by worsening nutritional state through muscle mass loss. Here we show in a 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) CKD rat model that 4 d s.c. UnAG administration (200 µg twice a day) normalizes CKD-induced loss of gastrocnemius muscle mass and a cluster of high tissue mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, high proinflammatory cytokines, and low insulin signaling activation. Consistent with these results, human uremic serum enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and lowered insulin signaling activation in C2C12 myotubes while concomitant UnAG incubation completely prevented these effects. Importantly, UnAG enhanced muscle mitophagy in vivo and silencing RNA-mediated autophagy protein 5 silencing blocked UnAG activities in myotubes. UnAG therefore normalizes CKD-induced skeletal muscle oxidative stress, inflammation, and low insulin signaling as well as muscle loss. UnAG effects are mediated by autophagy activation at the mitochondrial level. UnAG administration and mitophagy activation are novel potential therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle metabolic abnormalities and their negative clinical impact in CKD.-Gortan Cappellari, G., Semolic, A., Ruozi, G., Vinci, P., Guarnieri, G., Bortolotti, F., Barbetta, D., Zanetti, M., Giacca, M., Barazzoni, R. Unacylated ghrelin normalizes skeletal muscle oxidative stress and prevents muscle catabolism by enhancing tissue mitophagy in experimental chronic kidney disease.

Unacylated ghrelin normalizes skeletal muscle oxidative stress and prevents muscle catabolism by enhancing tissue mitophagy in experimental chronic kidney disease

GORTAN CAPPELLARI, GIANLUCA;SEMOLIC, ANNA MARIA;Ruozi, Giulia;VINCI, PIERANDREA;GUARNIERI, GIANFRANCO;BORTOLOTTI, Francesca;BARBETTA, DAVIDE;ZANETTI, MICHELA;GIACCA, MAURO;BARAZZONI, ROCCO
2017

Abstract

Unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) may lower skeletal muscle oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance in lean and obese rodents. UnAG-induced autophagy activation may contribute to these effects, likely involving removal of dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy) and redox state maintenance. In chronic kidney disease (CKD) oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance may negatively influence patient outcome by worsening nutritional state through muscle mass loss. Here we show in a 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) CKD rat model that 4 d s.c. UnAG administration (200 µg twice a day) normalizes CKD-induced loss of gastrocnemius muscle mass and a cluster of high tissue mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, high proinflammatory cytokines, and low insulin signaling activation. Consistent with these results, human uremic serum enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and lowered insulin signaling activation in C2C12 myotubes while concomitant UnAG incubation completely prevented these effects. Importantly, UnAG enhanced muscle mitophagy in vivo and silencing RNA-mediated autophagy protein 5 silencing blocked UnAG activities in myotubes. UnAG therefore normalizes CKD-induced skeletal muscle oxidative stress, inflammation, and low insulin signaling as well as muscle loss. UnAG effects are mediated by autophagy activation at the mitochondrial level. UnAG administration and mitophagy activation are novel potential therapeutic strategies for skeletal muscle metabolic abnormalities and their negative clinical impact in CKD.-Gortan Cappellari, G., Semolic, A., Ruozi, G., Vinci, P., Guarnieri, G., Bortolotti, F., Barbetta, D., Zanetti, M., Giacca, M., Barazzoni, R. Unacylated ghrelin normalizes skeletal muscle oxidative stress and prevents muscle catabolism by enhancing tissue mitophagy in experimental chronic kidney disease.
4-ago-2017
Pubblicato
THE FASEB JOURNAL
http://www.fasebj.org/doi/pdf/10.1096/fj.201700126R
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