Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a large and growing group of disorders commonly associated with recurrent infections. However, nowadays, we know that PIDs often carry with them consequences related to organ or hematologic autoimmunity, autoinflammation, and lymphoproliferation in addition to simple susceptibility to pathogens. Alongside this conceptual development, there has been technical advancement, given by the new but already established diagnostic possibilities offered by new genetic testing (e.g., next-generation sequencing). Nevertheless, there is also the need to understand the large number of gene variants detected with these powerful methods. That means advancing beyond genetic results and resorting to the clinical phenotype and to immunological or alternative molecular tests that allow us to prove the causative role of a genetic variant of uncertain significance and/or better define the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Furthermore, because of the rapid availability of results, laboratory immunoassays are still critical to diagnosing many PIDs, even in screening settings. Fundamental is the integration between different specialties and the development of multidisciplinary and flexible diagnostic workflows. This paper aims to tell these evolving aspects of immunodeficiencies, which are summarized in five key messages, through introducing and exemplifying five clinical cases, focusing on diseases that could benefit targeted therapy.

Immunity and Genetics at the Revolving Doors of Diagnostics in Primary Immunodeficiencies

Rispoli, Francesco;Valencic, Erica
;
Girardelli, Martina;Pin, Alessia;Tesser, Alessandra;Piscianz, Elisa;Boz, Valentina;Faletra, Flavio;Severini, Giovanni Maria;Taddio, Andrea;Tommasini, Alberto
2021

Abstract

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a large and growing group of disorders commonly associated with recurrent infections. However, nowadays, we know that PIDs often carry with them consequences related to organ or hematologic autoimmunity, autoinflammation, and lymphoproliferation in addition to simple susceptibility to pathogens. Alongside this conceptual development, there has been technical advancement, given by the new but already established diagnostic possibilities offered by new genetic testing (e.g., next-generation sequencing). Nevertheless, there is also the need to understand the large number of gene variants detected with these powerful methods. That means advancing beyond genetic results and resorting to the clinical phenotype and to immunological or alternative molecular tests that allow us to prove the causative role of a genetic variant of uncertain significance and/or better define the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. Furthermore, because of the rapid availability of results, laboratory immunoassays are still critical to diagnosing many PIDs, even in screening settings. Fundamental is the integration between different specialties and the development of multidisciplinary and flexible diagnostic workflows. This paper aims to tell these evolving aspects of immunodeficiencies, which are summarized in five key messages, through introducing and exemplifying five clinical cases, focusing on diseases that could benefit targeted therapy.
16-mar-2021
Pubblicato
https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4418/11/3/532
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002250/
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11368/2990435
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